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PSY 2110 Final Exam Study Notes.pdf

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PSY 2110Winter 2014 PSY 2110 FINAL EXAM STUDY NOTES TABLE OF CONTENTS WEEK 7 STEREOTYPES PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION 3 STEREOTYPES 3 STEREOTYPES AND PREJUDICE IN ACTION 4 CONSEQUENCES OF STEREOTYPES AND PREJUDICE 4 THREE LEVELS OF STEREOTYPES 5 DISCRIMINATION 5 COSTS OF PREJUDICE DISCRIMINATION AND STEREOTYPING 6 REDUCING PREJUDICE 6 WEEK 8 SOCIAL INFLUENCE 8 CONFORMIITY 8 THE EFFECT OF AMBIGUITY 8 WHEN ARE WE MORE OR LESS LIKELY TO CONFORM 10 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ASCHSHERIF STUDIES 10 TYPES OF CONFORMITY 11 ACTIVE AND PUBLIC COMMITMENTS 11 CONFORMITY CONTINUED 12 THE COPY MACHINE STUDY 13 COMPLIANCE 13 PERSUASION HOW ATTITUDES ARE CHANGED 15 OBEDIENCE 16 FACTORS AFFECTING OBEDIENCE IN ORIGINAL STUDY 17 EXPLANATIONS FOR OBEDIENCE 17 WEEK 9 GROUP BEHAVIOUR 18 WHAT IS A GROUP 18 THE PRESENCE OF OTHERS 18 MERE PRESENCE OF OTHERS AND SOCIAL FACILITATION 18 ZAJONC 1969 19 WHY DOES SOCIAL FACILITATION OCCUR 20 GROUP BEHAVIOUR 20 LATANE WILLIAMS AND HARKINS 1979 20 WHY DOES LOAFING HAPPEN 21 WE LOAF LESS WHEN 21 DEINDIVIDUATION THEORY 21 GROUP BEHAVIOUR CONTINUED 22 WHY DO GROUPS POLARIZE AFTER DISCUSSION 22 GROUPTHINK 23 WEEK 10 AGGRESSION 24 WHAT IS AGGRESSION 24 DIFFERENT TYPES OF AGGRESSION 24 IS THERE A GENDER DIFFERENCE IN AGGRESSION 25 EVOLUTIONARY APPROACHES TO AGGRESSION 25 SITUATIONAL APPROACHES TO AGGRESSION 25 EXCITATION TRANSFER AND AGGRESSION MODEL ZILLMANN 1974 1983 26 THE EXCITATION TRANSFER MODEL OF AGGRESSION 26 GENERAL AGGRESSION MODEL ANDERSON AND BUSHMAN 2002 27 GOALS PURSUED THROUGH AGGRESSION 27 HOW IS AGGRESSION MEASURED 27 AGGRESSION AND INTERGROUP CONFLICT 28 WEEK 11 PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOUR 29 WHAT IS PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOUR 29 WHY DO WE HELP OTHERS 29 SOCIALEXCHANGE THEORY 29 KIN SELECTION THEORY 29 WHEN WILL WE HELP 30 WHEN WILL WE NOT HELP 30 VIOLENT MEDIA 31 STUDY 2 31 HOW DOES VIOLENT MEDIA REDUCE HELPING 31 WEEK 12 INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION AND CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS 32 NEED TO AFFILIATE 32 INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION 32 PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS AND STEREOTYPES 32 CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS 34 ATTACHMENT STYLES SHAVERBRENNAN 1992 35 WHAT IS LOVE 35 2 WEEK 7 STEREOTYPES PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION StereotypesCognitiveThe generalized perceptions beliefs and expectations a person has about members of some group Schemas about entire groups of people Effects of stereotypes on behavior can be automatic and unconsciousPrejudice AffectiveA negative attitude toward an individual based solely on the persons membership is some group Includes an irrational hostility toward a particular group In one wordprejudgmentDiscrimination BehaviouralDifferential treatment of individuals who belong to different groups STEREOTYPES Stereotypes are a type of schemas Generalized beliefs about members of a group based on race gender religion etc May or may not be accurate May be positive or negative Most researchers believe it is even possible to have a schema that you dont personally believe ie OTHER PEOPLE think that Group X has qualitiesbut I dontStereotypes are formed through social categorization The classification of persons into groups on the basis of common attributes Helps us form impressions quickly and use past experiences to guide new interactionsDevine 1989Suggests that our parents and media may have started an early process that has now become automatic Serious drawback By categorizing people we often Overestimate the differences between groups Underestimate the differences within groups This may bias our perceptions We have a strong tendency to divide people into ingroups and outgroupsSuch group identifications can promote an ingroup bias Often it becomes an Us vs Them attitudeConsequences Exaggerate differences between ingroups and other outgroups Creates an outgroup homogeneity effect3
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