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PSY 2110thLecture 1 IntroSept 5 2013What is Psychology The science of how people think feel and actWhat is Social PsychologyThe study of how an individuals thoughts feelings and actions are affected by the actual imagined or symbolically represented presence of other peopleThe scientific study of the way in which peoples thoughts feelings and behaviours are influenced by the realimagined presence of other peoplePersonality focus on individual traits and focuses on influences from inside the individual predispositionsThe configuration of characteristics and behaviour that comprises an individuals unique adjustment to life including major traits interests drives values selfconcept abilities and emotional patterns Construal idea behind how people subjectively perceive comprehend and interpret a situationthe world Nave realism conviction all of us have that we perceive things as they really areFolk Wisdom commentary from journalists social critics and novelists Fundamental Attribution Error tendency to overestimate the extent to which peoples behaviour stems from internal dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors ie focus on personality instead of social influence This is a twostep processis it the person or the situation When it comes to yourself you are more likely to attribute things to external behaviour but this is the opposite when it comes to other peopleHuman beings motivated to maintain a positive picture of themselves in part by justifying their past behaviourthis can lead them to do things that at first glance seem surprising or paradoxical eg may prefer peoplethings for whom they have suffered over peoplethings they associate with pleasure Social Cognition how people think about themselves and the social worldhow people select interpret remember and use social information Natural Selection process by which heritable traits that promote survival in a particular environment are passed along to future generations because that trait is more likely to produce offspring Evolutionary Psychology attempt to explain social behaviour in terms of genetic factors that evolved over time according to the principles of natural selectionthSept 10 2013Lecture 2 Methodology in Social Psychology1Bystander effect the more people present in a situation the less likely individuals are to take action Does not always occur especially in situations where there is an obvious life at riskemergency because there is no ambiguity of the risk to that person Things taken into account social influence evaluation apprehension and diffusion of responsibility Hindsight Bias tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could have predicted the outcome after knowing it occurred Theory an organized set of principles that can be used to explain observed phenomena Eg Behaviourism has taught us a lot It is a theory that can be used as a tool to study behaviour Have a stimulus object odour sound and this can be reinforced encouraged or it can be punisheddiminished Associations are built between things in the environment and your reaction Pavlovclassical conditioning Eg Operant Conditioning Skinner developed this Theoretical model with two assumptions 1 when you target someones behaviour you want them to either continue to do it reinforcement or stop it punishment and 2 that is positive or negative Punishment reduces behaviourReinforcement encourages behaviourNegative take something awayPositive do something Eg Theory of Planned Behaviour positive that the attitudes subjective norms and behavioural control affect your intention to do a certain behaviour Hypothesis a testable statement or idea about the relationship between two or more variablesOperational Definition the precise specification of how variables are measured or manipulated Validity an indication of the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measureInternal validity ensuring that nothing other than the independent variable can affect the dependent variableaccomplished by controlling extraneous variables and by randomly assigning people to different experimental conditions External Validity the extent to which the results can be generalized to other situations and to other people2Mundane Realism the extent to which an experiment is similar to reallife situationsPsychological Realism the extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life Cover Story description of the purpose of a study given to participants that is different than the true purpose used to maintain psychological realismReliability consistencydependability of test performance across occasions scorers and specific content Observation Method can use this to study cultural products When a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements of their behaviour Eg The Beatlescan notice they became darker in their lyrics over time and that Paul was more serious in lyrics than John Eg some researchers have used hidden cameras Engels wanted to know if music influenced peoples behaviour They transformed at old bar into a bar lab They used a cover storyasked people to do two tasks and they could drink as much as they wanted They verified with cameras how many drinks were consumed per person One genreclassicalmore drinking Ethnography the method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside without imposing any preconceived notionsInterjudge Reliability level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of dataArchival Analysis researcher examines the accumulated documents or archives of a culture Correlation the bidirectional association between two variables Correlation coefficient r100 to 100r 10 to 30 smallr30 to 50 mediumr50 or more largeExperimental Method researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variableMeta Analysis summarizing all the results of all given studies on a specific topic Research Ethics we try to do the best research but we never do it at the cost of the safety and integrity of participants Principle I Respect for dignity of personsPrinciple II Responsible caringPrinciple III Integrity in relationshipsPrinciple IV Responsibility to society3
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