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PSY2114 chapter notes.docx

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PSY2114 Course NotesChapter 1 The study of Human DevelopmentFundamental issues of developmentNature vs Nurture the degree to which genetic or hereditary influences nature and experiential or environmental influences nurture determine the kind of person you areoToday we know that no features of life span development are due exclusively to either hereditary or environmental they are mutually interactive influencesContinuity vs Discontinuity concerns whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression throughout life or a series of abrupt shiftsUniversal vs Context specific development whether there is just one path of development or severaloView that there is only one fundamental developmental process for everyone differences in development simply variations on fundamental developmental process ex Diff brands of carsoView that human development inextricably intertwined within context with which it occurs persons development is product of complex interaction with environment which is not fundamentally same in all environmentsBiopsychosocial frameworkScientists consider 3 interactive forces to attempt to explain why people develop as they do all forces interact no aspect of human development can be fully understood by examining one or two force all 3 must be considered in interactionEach factor impacts the others1Biological forces all genetic and health related factors that affect developmentPrenatal development brain maturation puberty menopause face wrinklingCollectively provide raw material genetics for development2Psychological forces all internal perceptual cognitive emotional and personality factors that affect development3Sociocultural forces include interpersonal societal cultural and ethnic factors that affect developmentView individuals development as part of much larger system in which no part of a system can act without influencing all other aspects of the systemKnowing culture from which person comes provides some general info about important influences that may appear throughout the lifespanLife cycle forces reflect difference in how same event affects people of different ages influence of life cycle forces can be depicted in unified spiral consisting of biological psychological and sociocultural forces as you develop deal with different events differentlyDevelopmental TheoriesTheory organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development essential for developing predictions about behaviour predictions result in research that help support or clarify the theoryTheories grouped together to form theoretical perspectiveTheoretical Perspectives on Human Development1Psychodynamic theories propose that human behaviour is largely governed by motives and drives that are internal and often unconscious Eriksons psychosocial theory believed that development continues throughout life proposed that personality development is determined by interaction of internal maturation plan and external societal demandsProposed that life cycle composed of 8 stages order of stages is biologically fixed each stage has challengeEpigenetic principle each psychosocial strength has its own special time of ascendancy or period of particular importancePresent and future behaviour must have roots in the past because later stages are built on foundation laid in previous oneChildren who overcome early obstacles easily are better able to handle later ones8 stagesBasic trust vs MistrustBirth to 1 Develop sense that the world yearis a safe good placeAutonomy vs Shame and doubt1 to 3 Realize that one is yearsindependent person who can make decisionsInitiative vs Guilt3 to 6 Develop ability to try new yearsthings and handle failureIndustry vs Inferiority6 years to Learn basic skills and work adolescencwith otherseIdentity vs Identity confusionAdolescenDevelop lasting integrated cesense of selfIntimacy vs IsolationYoung Commit to another in a loving adulthoodrelationshipGenerativity vs StagnationMiddle Contribute to younger people adulthoodthrough child rearing child care or other productive workIntegrity vs DespairLate lifeView ones life as satisfactory and worth livingtrust achievement wholeness
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