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STATS MIDTERMLevels of measurement1Binary consists of 2 categoriesEx Dead or Alive2Nominalmore than two categoriesEx Taste in music pop jazzhip hop rap ect3Ordinal categories have logical orderEx Letter grade A B C D4Interval Equal intervals on variables represent equal differences in the property of being measured Ex Likert scale variable temperature 5RatioSimilar to interval however ratio must make sense measure has meaningEx Age height reaction time Validity whether an instrument measures what it set out to measureReliability whether a measure produces the same results in the same conditionANALYZING DATADescriptive Statistics Statistical procedures used to DESRIBE the population sample that is being examined Inferential statisticsStatistical procedures used to make INFERENCES or predictions about a population from observations and analyses of a sample Distribution of scoreLook at distribution of scores in two waysFrequency charts categorical and continuous dataGraphs Bar or HistogramCharacteristics bell shape with majority of scores in the centre When distribution deviates it is generally from lack of symmetry skew and lack of pointiness kurtosisMeasures of central tendency1Modescore that occurs most frequently Appropriate for categorical binary nominal and ordinal dataLimitation Variable can be bimodal or multimodal2MedianScore in the middle of the distribution appropriate for ordinal interval and ratio dataUnaffected by extreme scoresskews Most score are generally not represented though 3Meansum of all scores divided by number of scores Interval and ratio Uses all scores and is most stable Affected by extreme scores skewed ONLY for interval ratioPreparing Data for AnalysisCheck for impossible and outofrange valuesCheck for response setsDeal with missing values
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