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University of Ottawa
Suzanne Weld

ToleranceIn tolerance as in habituation a learned behavior results when a response to a stimulus weakens with repeated presentationsMetabolic toleranceIncrease in number of enzymes used to break down substance and as a result any alcohol that is consumed is metabolized so quickly so blood alcohol levels are reducedCellular toleranceActivities of brain cells adjust to minimize effects of the substanceLearned TolerancePeople learn to cope with being intoxicatedSensitization The occasional drugtaker may experience an increased responsiveness to successive equal doses Whereas tolerance generally develops with repeated use of a drug sensitization is much more likely to develop with occasional use Sensitization RelevanceFor many drug therapies a drug must be taken for a number of weeks before it has beneficial effectsSo Sensitization may underlie development of the drugs beneficial effects Before a person becomes addicted to a drug must have experiences with the drug away from the home environmentSo Sensitization may related to the development of drug dependenceCan drugs cause brain damage Many substances even natural ones such as glutamate can be neurotoxins It is difficult to determine if recreational drugs are harmful Drugs that have been associated with brain damage or cognitive impairmentsAmphetaminesMDMA ecstasy Serotonin neuronsMethamphetamine Dopamine neuronsCocaine Blocks cerebral blood flowPhencyclidine PCP or angel dust Blocks NMDA receptorsEcstasy Doses of ecstasy approximating those taken by human users result in the degeneration of very fine serotonergic nerve terminalsDrugs that have NOT been associated with longlasting brain damage LSD Marijuana and OpiatesWhat is Stress Definition A change in the homeostasis eg extreme fever fear emotionA number of physiological changes neural behavioral and hormonalDesigned to deal with short term problems wonderfully designed to deal with acute stress The two pathways to stressThere are two pathways out of the brain to trigger bodily responses to stress The sympathetic system Fast acting and uses chemicals similar to neurotransmitters Direct projections from the brain stimulate the adrenal medulla kidneys which in turn releases epinephrine and norepinephrine These get the body ready for the surge of energy we feel before something frightening or before an important event Activate the body cells endocrine glands and the brain to cope with stress and reduce it and control the stressor It is useful for short term adaptations Hypothalamic Pituary Axis Hypothalamus releases CRH into pituitary gland which releases ACTH into the blood that flows to the adrenal cortex kidneys which in turn releases glucocorticoids It is good for long lasting adaptations but not too long These hormones increase glucose production energy and decrease inflammation This gets the body ready for action andor damage Limbic regions such as the hippocampus and hippocampus send direct projections to the hypothalamus triggering the stress responseStressor and Stress response Stressor is stimulus that challenges the bodys homeostasis and triggers arousal There are two types of stressors these are acute stressor and chronic stressorStress response is a physiological and behavioral arousal and any attempt to reduce the stress There are two sequences of stress response
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