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Interpersonal Relationships Midterm 1 Notes

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Rosalinde Klempan

Monday January 6, 2014 PSY3102 Interpersonal Relationships Chapter 2: Understanding and Communicating With Different Personality Types Understanding Personality Types • Knowing psychological type to promote: o Self-awareness o Other-awareness • Carl Jung’s type approach • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator o MBTI o Based on Carl Jung’s theory o Identity personality preferences. o Try to focus on self-awareness. • “Pinpointing my personality preferences” (self-diagnostic) o Perceive o Make Decisions o Orient to World Jung's Character Typology 2 Dimensions of Psyche: 1. Functions • Characteristic ways psyche experiences internal or external stimuli • How we process internal and external reality daily • Functions define psyche in action • Organization of personality by tendency to experience world 4 Hypothesized Functions: 1. Sensation • Inform about existence of something (to know it exists) 2. Thinking • Interpret what exists (to know what it is) 3. Feeling • Evaluate if it is good or bad 4. Intuition • Picking up information your not fully aware of • Unconscious perception of stimulus • To conclude where it came from and where it is going Functions grouped in opposite pairs: • Rational Pair o Thinking-Feeling • Irrational Pair o Sensation-Intuition Development • At the start all 4 functions are used in conscious (CSC.) activity • One side of pair becomes more differentiated/emphasized in use • The one that is differentiated is the one that we used most effectively Superior Function  One adopted  Shows in CSC. life Interior Function  Opposite one  Repressed into UCSC. life • Jung’s definition of Repressed o Little freer than Freud o Kept at unconscious level 2. Attitudes of Psyche • Direction of libidinal movement either inward or outward o (Introvert vs. Extrovert) o Libido  Jungian Psychic energy  Life process energy  Not limited to sexual energy Introversion  The internal flow of libido Extroversion  The outward flow of libido • Emphasized function comes from experience, attitudes are inborn Development of Attitude • Part of inborn constitution • Rooted in physiology Attitude Types: Extravert • Attends to external environment • Outgoing & adventuresome • Influenced by objects/events Introvert • Attends to internal environment • Introspective & shy • Comfortable alone • Self-concerned January 8, 2014 Jung's Principle Of Opposites: • If superior attitude (expressed): extraverted then inferior: introverted & V.v. • If too one-sided on a function or attitude Jung recommended Jungian therapy Character Type Description • Based on interaction & degree of superior attitude & function • Is No Pure Character Type • Degree is important (Jung’s Character Types in Supplemental Material) Myers Briggs Typology • Used 1. Extraversion-Introversion o Source of Energy preference  External outer-world vs. internal-inner world 2. Sensing-Intuition o Information gathering/perceiving preference  Reality-facts vs. possibilities & relationships 3. Thinking-Feeling o Decision making preference o Head-logic vs. Heart-personal values/warmth • Added: 4. Judging-Perceiving: o Orientation to outer world preference o Deliberate/organized vs. flexible/adaptable & spontaneous • 16 Personality Types Possible o Combinations of Above o Descriptions In supplemental • Ways to determine degree for each dimension. • Applications o Psychotherapy, counseling, vocational counseling, marriage counseling o Team building (business) o Education - how to learn, facilitate learning • Can be scored as o Continuous variables o Types • Key Descriptors (In text) 1. Sources of Energy (Introverts/Extraverts) Introverts Extraverts • Focus on the inner world • Focus on outer world • Depth • Breadth • Private • Social • Reserved • Outgoing • Think before acting • Act before thinking • Reflective • Active 2. Information Gathering (Sensors/Intuitives) Sensors Intuitives • Perspire • Inspire • Focus on present • Focus on future • Like routine • Choose variety • Enjoy • Anticipate • Conserve • Change • Stress facts • Stress innovations • Take sequential • Take random approach approach • Look for patterns • Look for details • Imaginative • Practical • Pursue hunches • Follow directions 3. Ways of Making Decisions (Thinkers/Feelers) Thinkers Feelers • Objective • Subjective • Impersonal • Personal • Rational • Emotional • Head • Heart • Truthful • Tactful • Logical • Values-oriented • Firm • Compassionate • Just • Humane • Critical • Appreciative 4. Orientation to Outer World (Judging/Perceiving) Judging • Definite • Structured • Fixed • Scheduled • Enjoy Finishing • Ordered • Planned • Decisive Perceiving • Flexible • Deliberate • Spontaneous • Tendency to keep • Adaptive collecting new • Responsive to a variety information • Tentative of situations • Wait-and-see attitude • Flexible • Enjoy starting Estimates for Frequency of Preferences in U.S. • More Extraverts in US (More lntroverts in Canada) • 75% of population Extraverts and Sensors • 55%-60% Judgers • 60% Males Thinkers, 60% Females Feelers January 13, 2014 Interpersonal Communication Definitions: • Communication – the process of acting on information • Human communication- process of making sense of world & share sense with others • IP Condemnation – process of interacting simultaneously & sharing mutual influence with another person Models of Human & Interpersonal Communication 1. Message Transfer Model • Simplest & oldest model (1949) • Communication as a linear input/output process • Information: o Can be a thought or emotion o Transferred from 1 person to another • Definitions: o Source – Originator (Person) of thought or emotion o Receiver - Person toward whom source is directing messages, intentionally or unintentionally (body language) o Message - Written, spoken & unspoken elements of communication to which we assign meaning o Channel - Pathway through which messages pass between source & receiver (verbal, written/visual, touch, olfactory etc.) o Noise - Anything that interferes with the clear reception of a message (mood, concentration, distraction, bias, physical noise, environment etc.) o Encode - Translation of ideas, feelings, & thoughts into a code o Decode – Interpretation of ideas, feelings & thoughts that have been translated into a code o Context - Physical & psychological communication environment o Feedback - Verbal & non-verbal responses to messages 1 2 2. Interaction Model • Late 1940’s & Early 1950’s • Added Feedback & context to elements of message transfer model o Context includes:  Source & Receiver relationship  Culture  Goal of communication • Human communication occurs as the neeecher of the • Model is still linear – person simply responds to the same message through feedback 3. Transaction Model • 1960’s (Most recent model) • All communication is simultaneous o Messages are sent & received concurrently o Meanings are created during communication transaction o A mutual influence • Meaning is created based upon a mutual concurrent sharing of ideas & feelings • Most accurately describes IP Communication 4 Principles of Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication is: • Inescapable o There is no way for us to avoid communication (group situations, lack of communication, avoidance – all communicating something) • Irreversible o Once a message is sent, there is no way to take it back (can’t make people un-hear/see something etc.) • Complicated o Can't completely understand others • Contextual o Occurs in psychological, relational, situational, environmental & cultural contexts 5 Simultaneous Contexts 1. Psychological • Who each person is • Personality / self-idea • Their: o Needs & desires o Values o Self-concept 2. Relational • Reactions to other as affected by: o Trust o Amount of self-disclosure o History o Power/Control levels 3. Situational • Event or reason you are communicating o Purpose or goal 4. Environmental • Physical surroundings o E.g. Church vs. party vs. funeral • Influences what & how we communicate 5. Cultural • All elements of culture that affect interaction • Learned behaviours & rules o E.g. space between people while communicating 3 Goals for Interpersonal Communication 1. Message be Understood • Misunderstandings can occur (or misinterpretations) o E.g. different understandings/defintions of a word or symbol 2. Message have intended effect • Awareness of Goal/Purpose of communication • E. g. share information, persuade, entertain, establish trust etc. 3. Message be ethical • Ethical considers needs & rights of others • Acknowledges freedom of others • Does not demean integrity or self-worth • Promotes trust • Usually honest (unless to spare feelings/avoid bad situations) • Keeps confidences • E.g. of unethical messages: o Lying, manipulation, bullying Benefits of the Study of IP Communication • To improve relationships with: o Family o Friends o Colleagues • Develop & maintain intimacy • Improve physical & emotional health • 80-90% of waking hours are spent in some form of IP communication o Social isolation can lead to poor health o Examples:  Association between isolation & depression, isolation & mortality rates, etc. Characteristics of Interpersonal Relationships • Range from impersonal to interpersonal (Superficial to close) • Emphasize both content & emotion o Give clues about:  Intimacy  Emotionality  Power Structure o E .g. Physical distances, word choice, voice, tone, aspect (dominate conversations) • May be complementary, symmetrical, or parallel o Complementary  Pattern of interaction fits style of each party  E.g. Dominant & Submissive o Symmetrical  Both partners have similar styles  E.g. Both competitive, both seek to dominate o Parallel  Power shifts back & forth according to situation or interaction  Can look like either one of above • Are governed by rules o Prescript for what behaviour is required, preferred, or prohibited in certain contexts o Can be implicit or explicit o Need rules to help keep us safe • Evolve in stages o Meeting – Intimacy/Bonding o Takes time • Range from self-oriented to other-oriented o Primary goal to satisfy:  Own needs • Teacher/student  Needs of others • Caretakers How to Improve Interpersonal Communication Social Skills • Acquired via practice with feedback • Be Knowledgeable o Learn principles, concepts, & ideas • Be Skilled o Translate knowledge into action • Be Motivated o Resolve to use knowledge & skill • Be Flexible • Be Other-Oriented o Use decentering to develop empathy for partner o Mostly we are egocentric/Focus on self o Two ways to be other-oriented 1. Decentering  Consciously think about other's thoughts & feelings 2. Empathizing  Trying to understand what they're feelings & experiencing  Sympathy – feeling sorry for someone else  Fundamental Attribution Error: o Underestimate influence of circumstance & overestimate influence of personality o Can interfere with ability to emphasize Influence of Type on Communication • Considering Type o Allow development of strategies to vary messages to suit psychological preferences of target perceiver  How we encode can be adapted o Helps understand where others coming from  Decoding (or interpretation) of information is also influenced by our type Why Modify Our Communication Style? • Helpful Hints o When:  You want your message to be understood  When it is essential for the message to be received accurately (instructions, directions, feelings)  It is important to resolve a person or professional conflict  You want to make a certain impression Communication Styles Extraverts & Introverts: • Extraverts o Gregarious/Open o Potentially perceived by others as:
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