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Revision List - Chapters 1-6.doc

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Chapter 1Sex and genderSexbiological differences between men and womenGenderterm used to describe traits and behaviors that are regarded by the culture as appropriate to men and women social nature of differences between men and womenDifferences perspectiveEssentialist Viewthe view that gender differences are biologically determinedStructuralist Viewthe view that attempt to understand the conscious mind by dividing the mind into component parts and analyzing the structure of the mindFunctionalist Viewthe view that attempts to understand how the mind functions holding a practical applied orientation including an interest in mental abilities and in gender differences in those abilitiesMaximalist and Minimalist viewsMaximalistmany important differences exist between the sexesMinimalistfew important differences exist between the sexesBehaviorismthe school of psychology that emphasizes the importance of observable behavior as the subject matter of psychology and discounts the utility of unobservable mental eventsAndrocentric Biasif men are the standard women will always appear deficient when they differ from that standard whenever research finds a gender difference that finding is interpreted as a disadvantage for womenLiberal Feminismwanting to end discriminationRadical Feminismwanting to end oppressionCultural Feminismadvocating social change in favor of caring and relationshipsComparing women and mens movementsWomenAPA Division 35BeauvoirFriedan1848National Organization for WomenSociety for the Psychology of WomenAssociation for Women in PsychologyVery unitedMenAPA Division 51R Bly and Sam Keen1870National Coalition of Free MenNational Organizations for Men Against SexismPromise KeepersLess unitedShould psychologist study genderArgument A all psychological research should report on gender if such comparisons were part of the designArgument B psychologists should move away from reporting on gender comparisonsChapter 2Biological Essentialismthe tendency to focus on innate differences and to downplay social factors when it comes to explaining gender differencesEmpirical Observationcollecting information through direct observationObjectivitythe notion that observation is free of bias by the observerQuantitative Research dataresearch that uses numerical data and statistical analysis experimental designs ex post facto studies descriptive research methods surveys correlational studiesQualitative Researchresearch that focuses on understanding complexity and context rather than distilling situations to sets of numbers case studies interviews ethnography focus groupsDependent and Independent VariablesDependent Variablethe factor in an experiment that the experimenter measures to determine whether the manipulation of the independent variable has an effectIndependent Variablethe factor in an experiment that the experimenter manipulates to create a difference that did not previously exist in the participantsDescriptive Research Methodsa group of research methods including naturalistic observation surveys and correlational studies that yield descriptions of the observed phenomenaEx Post Facto quasiexperimental Studiesa type of nonexperimental research design that involves the comparison of subjects who are placed in contrast groups on the basis of some preexisting characteristic of the subject do not involve the manipulation of the IV and do not allow the determination of causality
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