Average Longevity — the age which we can expect a particular cohort to live to.
Active Life Expectancy — how old someone can live independently as an active individual
Chronic Illness: lasts longer than three months and may result in impairments which require
long term management
WHO deﬁnes health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being — not just
the absence of disease.
Coronary Heart Disease: when the arteries that feed the heart muscle are effected by a heart
attack or myocardial infarction — meaning that the blood cannot supply the muscle and tissue
begins to die.
Congestive Heart Failure: heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the bodies needs
i. Hyperglycemia: fatigue, frequent urination, being thirsty, weight loss, blurred vision.
ii. Hypoglycemia: blood glucose is too low resulting in being confused, nervous, jittery.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: coughing, excess mucus, linked to bronchitis, linked
with certain occupations.
The older population consumes 28-40% of all medication in Canada. They may not metabolize
medications as a younger adult would. Slower medication absorption into the blood stream,
slower metabolization of medication. Slower metabolization puts older individuals at risk for toxic
Adherence Issues: as the number of medications increases, adherence becomes more difﬁcult.
Young Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation
Middle Adulthood: Generativity vs. Stagnation
Older Adults: Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Lobelinger’s Moral and Ego Psychology Development
1. Conformist: blindly follow societies rules
2. Conformist-Conscientiousness: have a set of personal rules, internalized right and wrong
3. Contentiousness: understanding the reasons behind societies rules
4. IndividualityL operating more clearly on inner standards and tolerance of ambiguity
5. Integrated: resolution of inner conﬂicts
Life Narrative Theory: focus on aspects of personality that tend to pull things together and
integrate them, which gives the person an identity and sense of self
Kwickborne’s Theory: future expectations and personal past narratives integrate into your
identity development. Life Story Model: people are creating a life story based on where they were in the past, where
they are now, and what they want to be in the future.