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PSY 3128 - Final Review.docx

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Annie Robitaille

Lecture 1PersonalityWhat is Personality Describes a persons characteristics feelings and behaviours They are stable across time and are likely to impact similar situations over timeFive Factor Model Big FiveCostaMcCraeOpennessConscientiousnessExtraversionAgreeablenessNeuroticism NEOPIRNEO Were the first three described They took a poll of a bunch of describing words and formed different factors and facets Each of the big 5 has 6 facets The 6 Facets of Openness The 6 Facets of Conscientiousness The 6 Facets of ExtraversionFantasyCompetenceWarmthAestheticsOrderGregariousnessFeelingDutifulnessAssertivenessActionsAchievement StrivingActivityIdeasSelfDisciplineExcitementseekingValuesDeliberationPositive EmotionsThe 6 Facets of Agreeableness The 6 Facets of Neuroticism TrustAnxietyStraightforwardnessHostilityAltruism DepressionComplianceSelfConsciousnessModestyImpulsiveness TendermindednessVulnerabilityDo you think the Big 5 Remain Stable or Change with AgeIt depends It can be situational and can vary How would you research thisYou would do a longitudinal not cross sectional You cant see if it changes over time or notBig FiveLongitudinal Model They did a test and retest design Took their personality scores in two time points different intervals The studies show that even 30 years later the correlation between time 1 and 2 is very high However this only looks at the correlation between two time points The figure on the right we look at the average change over time In general older adults will increase in agreeableness Personality is quite stable however there is some fluctuation and changes with aging If you look at the specific facets there is a lot more variability Even though you increase in agreeableness the facets within that wont all increase at the same rate What FactorsSituations could have an impact on Personality Overview ChangeOpenness Slight Decrease Environmental ChangesConscientiousness Slight Increase EducationExtraversion Slight decrease IllnessAgreeableness Slight Increase Social Support systemsNeuroticism Slight decease Health and PersonalityYour personality affects your health Type A hostility increase in the chances of Cardiovascular disease This is because its an emotion that is really strong They are very stressedo Duke University 10 year studyLow consciousnessHigher MortalityHigh OpennessLower MortalityLess agreeable and more extravertedmore admissions to hospital emergency for older adultsLower consciousness and high neuroticism Can increase levels of stress and cortisol which increases mortalityo High risk of Alzheimers diseaseCognition and PersonalityPeople with high Openness score high on Intelligencecognitive functioningWhy is that o More open to learn They are more creative and interested in new things Theyre engaging in more cognitive activities This leads to overall better cognitive functioning Cognitive Perspective TheoriesPeople want to control their experiences and understand their personality over time Theories o Possible Selves o Coping and Control o Identity process theoryPossible Selves TheoryView of your idea of self has an impact on future endeavors Sometimes our perception of ourselves are off We have an idea of ourselves and what we want to be in the future What we strive for is our hoped for idea of our self and dreaded self is the opposite That hoped for self might be unrealistic for some of us if you get less than that you feel bad We must reevalute our sense of self Hopedfor vs dreaded self A vs FailPeople protect themselves not an A studentOlder adults and possible selves Studies show that those who under estimate themselves do not over estimate their abilities are happier Because their idea of themselves are less realistic and there is less disappointment Coping and ControlControl o Does agingloss of feeling of controlThey do not seem to report that viewing because they focus on their potential on the resources they actually have The can adjust themselves This study removed those with dementia o MacArthur Study of Adult Development o Resources and potentialCoping o Reciprocal relationship between coping and wellbeingStudies with older adults older adult widows and widowers and resilience Those who are more resilience have a higher wellbeing They have less depression and anxiety It also goes the other way around those who are high on depression you will be less able to cope with the problem and become more stressed out How do you think younger and older people compare o Older adults cope better or just as well as younger generations because they have experience Comparing older and Younger on Coping2005 Hurricane Katrina Older adults could cope as effectively as the younger adults This is an average Study with Rats Old rats vs young rats put in a stressful situation They found that older rats that under stressful situations that they could learn better than the younger rats The older rats were better at copingBlood Pressure Stress and negative emotions Older adults blood pressure are high during stress situations they found that their negative emotions were lower they were dealing with the situation more positively Identity Process TheoryThe goal of development is to balance assimilation and accommodation Balance between identity assimilation and identity accommodation o Assimilation something happens but you do not change the identity of yourself You blame others and your idea of yourself stays the same o Accommodation You change your sense of self Increase in identity assimilation with aginghealthy denial o Its a healthy increase but not drastic This slight increase is beneficial They were increasingly able to keep their sense of self Its good because the increments are small This tiny increase is good for longevityo Whitebourne and Colins 1998 studyAssimilationAccomodation and Health o Increased longevity o Better psychological health o Older drivers studyWhy do you think that is o Its the idea that theres a lot of things changing That assimilation is like a denial but healthy Its enough to keep the positive idea of ourselves
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