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PSY3128 - Final Prep.docx

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University of Ottawa

PSY3128Final PrepChapter 3 Longevity Health and FunctioningVideo The SOC ModelBecause the demographics of OA are changing we need to accommodate to those changes The SOC model was developed by Baltes et al and states that as OA age they experience 3 processes to accommodate to aging1Selection 2Optimization 3Compensation The traditional view was the inverted U theory as we age we increase in functioning then we stabilize at our prime and then we decline as we age furtheroThis is true for most physical decline but it is not true for cognitive abilities However there is much variation from this model that is seen in OA oWe know that age isnt the sole determinant of functioningoPractice and constant use of abilities also plays a big factor The SOC model takes into account fluid vs crystallized intelligenceoWisdom is crystallized intelligence it is an expert knowledge system that is the result of experience and extensive insight oWisdom can be measured with standardized testsoLiving long is not a guarantee of attaining wisdom however lifetime peak is usually in later life the 60s are best oWisdom is dependent not just dependent on intelligencePersonality and cognitive style are more important This includes factors associated to the Big 5 having flexibility in thinking creativity empathyPersonality factors remain stable over lifetime but intelligence can declineThe SOC model The SOC model was developed to work on individual OA but we soon realized that it has universality The SOC model is used in successful aging and individuals shape their lives through SOC processes oAs we get older we have to pay more attention to these processesPremise the older we get less resources we have and thus we need to be selective on what to expend our resources on we need to optimize our abilities and situation and compensate for our lack of resources with the resources that we do haveoSelectivity we all make choices on how to live Choices become more necessary because our resources deplete as we age We may experience losses when moving from one stage to another but other opportunities open up such as the opportunities that we havent had time for oOptimization In old age we can optimize the situation and take advantage of the opportunities that we havent had time for before oCompensation In old age we lose skills and find ways to compensate for the lossthis is required in order to continue with successful aging Ex working fewer hours different types of movement Baltes says that we use SOC continuously in life to respond to life challengesAdaptive competence oThe ability to draw on an expert knowledge system about ones functioning in the world and about the nature of tasks that must be performed effectively Thus OAs always have more other options oSome people have more choices than othersoAs we age our choices declineoCompensation we might have to decrease our ability in one area to increase our ability in another area oLimitations on time money health may play a role in choicesWhenAnnawasyoungershelikedtodoAerobicButnowthatherkneeshurtshe compensatesbydoingaerobicsinwater SShechoosestocontinuedoingaerobicsbecauseshelikesit OSheoptimizesherabilitiesbyevaluatingwhatshecandoPeople who accommodate successfully to changes ie use the SOC model are able to eventually maintain good wellbeingIreneisgrowingoldSherealizesthatsheislosingtheabilitytodoeverythingsheusedtodowiththesameefficiencyandwithoutgettingtiredTherearestillmany thingsthatshewantstodosuchascookcleangardenspendtimewithpeople etcbutsheneedstochooseSo SIreneevaluatesthestuffthatshewantstodoSheneedstoberealisticandprioritizeSheparticipatesinacombinationoflossbasedselection ConclusionshedecidesthatfamilyandchurchisthemostimportanttoherShenowneedstotakeadvantageofopportunitiesthatallowherto increaseherinteractionwithherfamily OIfpresentedwithanopportunityshewillevaluateitbasedonherOlder adults compensate for their inabilities with the use of aids However they may be faced with dependency issues if they compensate too much ie in nursing homes Longevity Average life expectancy and maximum life spanAverage life expectancy the average age that the cohort will liveAffected by both genetic and environmental factors In Canada this has been increasing steadily since the 1900s because of advances in technology and improvements in health care which have led to Elimination of many infectionsDecrease in infant mortality ratesDecreases in the number of women who die during child birth Maximum life span the oldest age to which any individual of a species livesMost researchers estimate the limit to be around 120 years limitations put on by key bodily functions such as the CV system New technologies may increase the maximum life spanbut would this be a good thing Active life expectancy living to a healthy old age Dependent life expectancy simply living a long time The difference between active life expectancy and dependent life expectancy is the difference between adding years to life dependent and adding life to years active Once active life expectancy ends we ender the dependent life expectancyThis is very dependent on genetic and environmental factors Genetic and Environmental factors Genetic Factors Longevity in your family is a large predictor You are 15x more likely to become a centenarian if you live in Nova Scotia The Human Genome Project found astonishing linkages to disease and aging Genetic factors play a role in how well OA cope with disease The oldestold seem to have a different personality profilehopeful yet realistic spiritual in love with life and involved with others Environmental factors DiseasesCVD ADToxinsair pollution toxins in fish bacteria and cancer causing agents in drinking waterLifestylesmoking and exercise Social classresults from reduced access to goods and services especially medical care Ex Native people have lower life expectancy than other Canadians and experience higher levels of chronic diseases and psychological problems Elders are even more disadvantaged here How environmental factors influence life expectancy changes over time AIDS is increasing but CVD is decreasing its effect on life expectancy Ethnic Differences in Average Life ExpectancyPeople in different ethnic groups may not have the same average life expectancy African Americans longevity at birth is 65 years for men and 5 years for women lower than it is for European Americans Canada people of visible minorities have higher life expectancy than the rest of the populationThe immigrant advantage Increased access to health care ethnic minorities have a younger age structure and may have been selected as immigrants based on their good health and higher educational statuscorrelated with lower morbidity and mortality Gender Differences in Average Life Expectancy Women live longer than men Women have nearly a 7year edge over males in Canada from birth Men are more prone to diseases in infancy The difference closes during adolescence and increases again for women in adulthoodThe gap narrows again in very old age Stats Can 2004 Birth 106 boys to 100 girls Ages 6569 81 men to 100 women Ages 8084 53 men to 100 women Age 100 27 men to 100 women The differences are typical of industrialized countries but not developing countries
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