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Drugs and behaviour Final Notes.docx

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Drugs and behaviour Final NotesChapter 6 alcoholTypes of alcoholIsopropylmethyl methanolethyl ethanol ETOHotype we drinkSource of AlcoholFermentationoSugar is dissolved in water and left exposed to the airoYeastsYeasts sugarwaterCOethanol2yeasts are living microorganisms which die in concentrations of alcohol greater than 10 to 15grains are used to make beergrapes used to make wineapples used to make ciderAlcohol levels in the bodyBlood Alcohol Concentration BACoConcentration of Alcohol in Whole Bloodomeasured indirectly in exhaled air by the breathalyzerMetric Measurements and PercentoBAC Expressed in Terms of milligrams mg of Alcohol per 100 milliliters ml of whole bloodoConversion to percent involves moving the decimal point three places to the left or rightFor example a BAL of 80 mg per 100 ml or 80 mgdl is the same as 008 percentAbsorptionPrimarily absorbed from small intestineFood slows absorption absorption faster on an empty stomachFirst Pass Metabolism by alcohol dehydrogenase in the stomachCertain Drugs Increase BAC LevelsoCimetidine Tegamet and Ranitidine ZantacH receptor antagonists2Difference in First Pass Metabolism Between Men and WomenPassage of Alcohol Through Stomach Facilitated by CarbonationConcentration Contributes to Speed of AbsorptionExcretion90 metabolized by the liveroSmall Percentage Eliminated Through Breath Sweat Tears Urine and FecesMetabolism of AlcoholstoRatelimiting step 1 stepAcetaldehydealcohol converted to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenasendoConverted into acetylcoenzyme 2 stepCitric acid styleacetaldehyde converted to acetylcoenzyme AAcetylcoenzyme A converted to water and CO2 in the citric acid cycleoDrinking experience and food can affect metabolismoMicrosomal ethanoloxidizing system MESOSMEOS in heavy drinkers and at very high levelsActivity increases at high BAL and in heavy drinkersNeuropharmacologyReceptor SitesoGABAReceptorIonophore ComplexEnhances GABA inhibition effect at GABA receptorSome alcohol Aeffects can be blocked by a GABA blockeroNMDA Receptor GlutamateAlcohol blocks the ion channel controlled by glutamate via NMDA receptor siteoDopamineSerotoninStimulates 5HT3 receptor which causes the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbensreinforcing effect5HT antagonists block some effects of alcoholoOtherDisrupts second messengersAlters Monoamine oxidaseAlters responsiveness of endogenous opiate systemDifferent doses has different effectsAlcohol antagonistsoHas opposite effect of alcohol on GABA receptor but NOT a competitive antagonist inverse agonistoWorks at the Benzodiazepine receptor siteoDoes not antagonize the lethal effects of alcoholoCan cause convulsionsEffects of AlcoholEffects on the BodyoDilation of blood vessels in the skin
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