PAP1301 ALL of Joseph Roman's notes

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Public Administration
Joseph Roman

PAP1301: Governance in contemporary societies Joseph Roman [email protected] Lecture 1: (Sept9th) Base points:  Explaining the turn to governance  Why governance matters  The types of governances and their steering mechanisms  Criticisms of governance Governance:  When concerning PA and governments it has only been a term for the past 20 years Physical crisis of the state  In the 70s  Governments run up against a whole host of limits  End of the post war era  1945-1970 – economic boom  Then came recession  Governments became less and less able to meet the demands placed upon them and citizens became less confident in government abilities Neoliberalism:  A reaction to the recession  Belief that gov’t is not the solution but the problem  Government should promote markets  A Belief in less regulation and less taxes  Too many demand of the state, gov’t cannot do everything Individualism:  A shift where people became more individualistic  Pressures on the national state above and below it, Above o Globalization o Deregulation of financial markets  Below o Regional identities start to articulate themselves o Seen in Quebec, Scotland, Northern Ireland  Prosperous regions within states start to act more aggressively (Bavaria, South England) The Gulliver Effect:  National states were too large to solve small problems (economic problems in small regions) while also being too small to solve large problems (Globalization) The Turn!:  Then came the turn towards Governance  Governance is seen as more flexible, that can adapt to ever-changing circumstances Why does governance matter?  Turns out attention back to how people are governed? o What is it that governments actually do? o Too often does PA focus on organizations  Governance helps us see power relationally o When you look at power, it helps contextualize things o The context affects how authority is executed o Then you can see the limits and possibilities for that authority o Power is negotiated See the following things in governance  Processes of rule  Self-governing networks  Addressing social change  Changing politics To understand what governance is must be careful  Governance and government are two different things  Governance is a buzzword, overly used by politicians Government:  Government is a decision making body that creates and carries out the rules and regulations of the state  Government is the formal and institutional processes which operate at the state level to maintain public order and facilitate collective action Governance:  Concerned with the conditions for ordered rule o What sorts of tools are available at the governments disposal  The coordination of socio-political systems o How rather than why we arrive at the outcomes we’ve come to o Very processed based  About Steering o How to interact with the ever changing domestic and international settings o Crucial in Governance o States are seen as the resources they command and how they deploy them o All about how they affect outcomes for the resources Governance focuses  Draws on state, and non-state actors o Governments must interact with a lot of other actors  Identifies the overlap between the public and the private spheres o States and societies interact with each other  Recognizes the overlap in policies and institutions o States are made up of many institutions o The decisions made in one institution will affect other institutions  Recognize that non-state actors can autonomously organize o The people will take action on their own to find their own solutions  Sees the possibility of resolving problems without involving government  Recognize the role of the third sector o And how they solve problems o UN, World bank, NGOs  Focusses on outcomes  Institutions specifically political institutions, structure the governance politics Build effective governance:  Must always simplify practices and models o Must reduce complexity o Make sure its relevant to your objectives  Recognize that there must be a dynamic element built into interactions o Smooth out turbulence  Build methods to coordinate action across different social forces o Participants within governance have different interest and ideas o Must provide ways for them to have a dialogue with each other  Establish a system of meta governance o Establishing the ground rules for interaction o Helps to establish common world view o Help to inject reflexivity that governance requires Types of governance:  Hierarchical: o Organizations which are vertically integrated/top-down o Associated with the state o Chain of command are specific roles o Know where you sit in the chain of command o Advocates of governance do not like vertical integration  Markets o A coordinating mechanism o Allocates and distributes resources, boycotting produces redistributes resources o A way to occasion governance  Networks o Involves state and non-state actors in a certain policy sector o Move from government to governance has increased the value of these networks o Expert driven  Communities o Communitarianism o Can solve their own problems without state involvement (Black panther free breakfast) o Seeks to resolve common problems o Create civic spirit without resorting to bureaucracy o One of the best ways to organize, turn to communitarianism represents loos of faith in governments to act How governments steer:  Traditional authority o Gov’t says it, you do it or get fined  Allow and encourage self-organizations  Cybernetics approach o Gov’t involving itself in a particular process to return to a particular equilibrium  Policy instruments o Policies can have secondary outcomes o Influence behaviours  Through institutions o They all privilege certain actors Criticisms of governance  Typically, the stronger components of governance simplify the world before and after governance  Domestic policies o Very negotiated between Ottawa and the provinces o Universal healthcare  Proponents of governance deny that steering is difficult  There is no way to determine success o Considering governance is about constant modification and negotiation o How to tell when governance if failing  The object of governance may not always be manageable o How to reform global financial system th Lecture 2 (Sept 11 ) Base points:  Why should we study the state?  Origins of the state  What do we talk about when we talk about the state?  Managing the public sphere Why should we study the state?:  The state is taken for granted in Poli Sci o Which is odd because the state is the center of Poli Sci, and affect everybody o Little to no reflexivity o Material affect/interactions o The state has a lot of power over its citizens o Ability of one actor to influence another actor into doing what they don’t want to do  The state is involved in your life until death o State run hospital, birth certificate printed by the state, death certificate o EVERYTHING o Powers are held by the various institutions developed to monitor everyday lives  Income (CRA), Address, Health, labour, education Origins of the state  States are a European form of political organizations and institution  Spread across the world through colonialism  Except for the Vatican, Singapore, Lichtenstein every country is a state What caused the spread from Europe?  Colonialism o Once independence was gained from the political centerm staes were formed around the world o Homogenous: N Korea, S Korea, Japan  War was instrumental in State development o The 30 year’s war o Largely fought over religion o A revolt in Bohemia (Czech republic) Catholics vs Protestant o Interference from neighboring jurisdictions in Bohemia’s affaires o Ends in 1648, treaty of Westphalia  Established the idea of sovereignty  Established fixed territorial boundaries  Process of establishing sovereignty lasts from 1648-1989 o Treaty of Westphalia states that states  Has the right to go about its business without interference from other states  States the subjects owed their allegiance to the state and only the state  Overlapping loyalties must be abolished o What enabled states to survive was the capability to continue making war  Advances in armor, firepower  Enabled states to protect their borders and sovereignty. Those being  External sovereignty: ability of a state to maintain its existence o Forces recognition by others, and defines boundaries  Internal sovereignty: state has the sole authority to make laws within its jurisdiction o State cannot be a state without internal sovereignty o Max Weber  Called single allegiance “Legal Rational Authority”  Ridding yourself of personal allegiances, allegiances allowed to both rules and jurisdictions  “This is a feature of modernity” o The divine right of kings  Allegiance is owed to me because God said so  War helped to secularize politics  Capitalism o Whether you love it othhate ith capitalism is the most productive economic system ever o Rise occurred in the 17 and 18 century o Complimented the ability of states to exercise internal and external sovereignty o Make above an beyond what is actually needed o Means some of the same things as war making means  Both need a lot of infrastructure (communications, roads, canals)  Can also be used for protection o Did contribute to the death of feudalism  Free labour What do we talk about when discussing the state? Features of a state (3 and 4 subsets of 2)  A set of rules and regulations, carried out by governments  Cannot rule effectively if you don’t know what’s going on 1. All states have governments 2. Made up of many institutions o Not a coherent actors o Only become coherent during times of crisis (war, social upheaval) o Without crisis, institutions are often in conflict with each other, or overlap each other o Health and Agriculture clash during Mad Cow disease 3. Bureaucracies o Rules based o Very efficient o Depersonalization, no exceptions to be made for anyone 4. Institutions o Designed to monitor people’s everyday lives o To gather information on population o Make populations more governable o Creating categories 5. Cultural dimensions (Includes 6) o A link between people to generate a feeling o Constant application of violence to assert legitimacy will eventually run out o Languages differ by region (Italy, Quebec, France) 6. Political representation o 2 events o American revolution of 1776 o French revolution of 1789  Gov’ts must represent the general will  All citizens are equal th Lecture 3: (Sept 16 ) Base points:  What do we talk about when we talk about the state?  Managing the public sphere o Cannot treat the public sector as the private sector  Evaluating the public sector  Defining the “Public Good” What we talk about when we discuss the state Monarchies  Often rulers were not of the people  Do not speak the same language of their people States  Divided along territorial lines  A sub-national form of administration  In countries like Canada, the roles of sub-national units are constitutionally protected o Unitary states however, can change regional legislation at the will of Parliament The Narrow Sense of the State/ Integral sense  The sequestration of responsibilities at a particular state level o Certain responsibilities reside at certain levels of the state  National, sub-national o Decisions at one level affect the decisions at another level State organization  Depends largely on historical circumstance Federalism  Classical federalism o Is about respecting jurisdiction o Responsible for your responsibilities and your only o Respect the division of power within the state  Co-operative federalism o Looking at how national and sub-national units work together on specific matters o These divisions of power ate very difficult to differentiate Managing the public sphere Bureaucracies  Important  Carry out the day-to-day work of the state Modern bureaucracy  Coined by Max Weber (most important to this course) (EXAM)  Theory of bureaucracy****** Rational legal Ideal type  The de-personalization of Ruling  How to organize knowledge o How things work and why they work  Not the best way to assess the strengths or weaknesses of bureaucracies Features of bureaucracy*** 1. A hierarchy of official position 2. Composed of salaried professional a. Appointed and promoted 3. A bureaucracy applies formal rules in a uniform manner 4. Bureaucracies are rational a. Formulas to determine their decision 5. Bureaucracy as bookkeeping a. There is always a paper trail What do bureaucracies do? 1. Bureaucracies make policies a. Something that seeks to achieve a specific goal or outcome b. Becomes public when a politician deems something is worthy to be debated and considered in the public sphere c. Yet it is ALWAYS political 2. Master of politicians a. Bureaucracies possess a significant store of knowledge b. Don’t owe allegiance to any politician or party c. Sensitive to the messy nature of policy-making How bureaucracies work as far as rationality and independence is concerned  Do they do it absolutely? o Rules o Know the steps they can skip and what is important o Following rules only under certain circumstances o Work to rule campaign – Thereby reducing efficiency  Must regularly report back to ministers  Hierarchical organizations are not always efficient o Sometimes a bottom up approach is prefered Evaluating the public Sector Can you evaluate the public sector?  Yes and no Yes  Yes you can evaluate it No  There is no single bottom line for the public sector  Best to look at the private sector – Are we making profits?  Public sector - No competitors o States do not go under – can have a debt crisis Why does it exist?  To provide goods and services to the public  If you are a citizen, you are provided the service Bureaucracies  Exist to assist the parties in power  Assist with policy development  Achieve certain outcomes Economic considerations  Not present in the public sector  Hence the prisons Subject to scrutiny  Need not be grilled by the people Accountability  Public sector is legally accountable  Clear lines of accountability Serving citizens  Different from serving customers  Must treat all citizens equally  Nobody is refused service Goals  Policy goals  Organizational goals  Must consult with the regions Defining the public good Bureaucracies  Make policies  Do not Propose policies  Made by a government run on a particular platform  Elected government over what the public interest/good is o Different parties have different views on the public interest Competition  Always about what the appropriate role of the state should be  All the ideologies have competing interests  The prominence in these schools of thought affect the public debates Resources  Every election is fought over them  Gov’ts must tax in order to spend Role of Government in Everyday Life  Public spending  Subsidies  Infrastructure  Schools  Taxation policy o Affects government initiatives o Carbon taxes  Regulatory policy Public ownership  Gov’ts own companies in the public interest o CBC, Via Rail, Ontario Hydro, OC Transpo, Canada Post Role of the state  Must constantly talk to different actors o Talk to business. Media, Labour Groups, Individuals  Changes over time o As does the public good o As the role of the state changes, so too does its relationship with citizens o WWII demonstrated to citizens that gov’t can marshal and organize resources and execute it for a particular purpose o 1970s – fiscalization of politics: increasing obsession with reducing deficits and cost effectiveness. Focus on cost! Good policy is cheap policy Lecture 4 (Sept 18 ) Base points:  The agenda driving the rise of governance  The rise of new public management  Internal changes to the environment and the shift to governance  External changes to the environment and the rise of governance The agenda driving the rise of governance The 1980s  Drive to reform the public sector o Reason: Budgetary concerns o Either the government raises taxes or cuts services  Usually crisis is what drives change in the public sector o Windows of opportunity  The crash of the golden age of the 70s o The government saying much more than they are doing o Citizens felt that the public sector was become more and more remote to their needs  Public pressure on public sector to change practices  Ways to respond o Do we maintain the system  Tighten up rules and regulations o Do we modernize the system  Making public agencies more flexible o Marketize the system  Thatcher forced public sector agencies to bid on contracts o Do we minimize the administration system  Farming out as many tasks as possible to the private sector  Seen municipally (LCBO) Rise of NPM Ideas to fix things  The most simply ideas will win o Not always the best ideas Relationship b/w gov’t and public management  What is the proper role of government?  Ted Gabble and David Osborne wrote: o Reinventing government o Government has to be injected with an entrepreneurial spirit o Must treat the citizens as consumers o Vastly picked up by Right-wing parties  Anything not subject to market discipline was bad o Ideas were embraced because citizens felt hard done by the government  Buzzwords in political vocabulary o Efficiency o Accountability Actions of Reinventing Government  It aimed to get away from rules and sought to move towards results  The reason being: the authors felt that bureaucracies slavishly following rules killed creativity o If you’re only following rules, how can you come up with solution? o Thereby straining problem soling  By emphasizing rules, you become more concerned with managing people  By looking more at results, you can more easily achieve outcomes New Public Management  Ideas took root quite firmly in the Anglo American countries (US,Canada, NZ) o As they prefer to let markets lead  Also took root in the Scandinavian countries o Greater emphasis on communitarianism and taking care of others o Real emphasis on cost-effectiveness o Spend a lot on the public sector, want to control costs  The real emphasis of NPM is Accountability o Must be accountable for spending, your department o Which end up creating more rules and layers of bureaucracy  A move towards a Post-bureaucratic Paradigm o Moving towards a paradigm that emphasises clients and service  Application varies from place-to-place o Canada vs NZ vs Sweden o The elements of NPM are very selectively picked up on by governments What happens during implementation? 1. Turn towards measuring services a. Always a danger to measuring services (graduation rates vs A+ students) b. Saying that governments effectiveness can be measured by its cost i. Sometime inefficiencies are actually good (Canadian military costs lots of money but saves lives) ii. Governments don’t have a bottom line c. Start to see an increasing tendency to contract out certain functions and services i. Contract out advice on infrastructure, just to heard what they want to hear 2. Rise of public-private partnerships (PPP) i. Due to the faith in private sector, anything subject to markets is good ii. Now injecting an entrepreneurial spirit to the government iii. Seen as very innovative iv. Only the US takes a fully governmental approach to road-building b. Often the motive of PPP is to undercut the public sector union i. Private sector take son the easy services with minimum risk ii. Decrease costs in the short run iii. But increase costs in the long term c. Not always a bad thing i. Biggest problem is that they are always political ii. Even if a project comes in ahead of schedule and under budget, the public gets mad as a private firm is making money on a public project 3. This does not mean that NPM is bad a. Made bureaucrats more reflexive of the work they do b. A lot of public sector unions want to change things and be involved in changing th public sector c. Gave greater clarity to citizens as far as “Who does what” d. Started a debate around public sector renewal e. As well as debating what the public sector should be for 4. The LCBO a. An example of NPM being applied i. Focusing on service clients Internal environmental changes and the shift to governance Explanations  Fiscal prices in the state and the scepticism citizens had towards the public sector o Must look at the political culture of the state  Tells you how people behave the way they do and have the attitudes they do  From the 70s onwards, we see an increase in rights talk  Increase in individualism (emphasize individual rights)  Led to a greater awareness amongst groups once marginalised from mainstream society (women, aboriginals, gays)  Starting to see identities emerged which were not anchored to the national state  Lead to demands for public sector reform External environmental changes and the rise of governance Turn to rights  Also occurred at the international scale  States do have to govern with international standards in mind today o Which aspects do we need to adhere to? o Source of shame activists call governments on when they re-neg certain rights  Economic globalization o Differently coordinated policies o Emergence of international organization (WTO, EU) o Globalization of economic activity which affects state  Becoming interdependent with other states (2008 financial crisis)  Policymaking o Government have to consider what implications decisions will have o How will it affect other states o more and more activities being coordinated on an international scale o How do we coordinate our budgets so that we can get out of this mess? o Private actors influencing how and why governments decide to do things  Credit rating agencies, th Lecture 5: (Sept 30 ) Base points  Understanding the parliamentary system o Executive legislature relations  The executive The executive in Canada features, roles, and responsibilities  The role of the PM and the Cabinet  Federalism The parliamentary system The parliamentary system  The style of government we have  Only country to deviate is the US  The relationship that exists between the executive and legislature o The executive is drawn from the legislature o Executive and legislature are fused  Executive is not popularly elected o Becomes PM by being the leader of the party with the most seats in the HOC  Head of State Different by the government o Monarch or a President or Governor General o Seen as being above politics, and not elected  Head of state usually lacks substantial powers  Largely ceremonial  Tours country, liaise with PM, has no voice on policy (making, amending)  The executive and legislature are dependent on one another o For survival and career progression  Executive must maintain the legislatures confidence o Principle of responsible government: The executive must answer to the legislature  Executive depends on the legislature o As they must hold the majority of the HOC o MPs have a clear interest in ensuring government stands o Show your loyalty, might just become a minister  Party discipline o Parties ensure that he legislature remains loyal to the executive o Not support the gov’t can endanger your career  Could be removed from caucus  1996, an MP voted against his parties budget and got kicked out  Party whip o Makes sure you are going to vote as your party wants to vote Features, roles, responsibilities  Sets priorities, makes decisions, sees that key decisions of the electoral platform get implemented  The PM is the head of Canada’s executive (the cabinet)  Their roles are noted constitutionally entrenched  Roles guided by a convention o The unwritten rules of the constitution o Practiced over time and become invested wisdom  The Privy Council o Made of the PM and Cabinet o And advises the Governor General o Lifelong appointments to the PCO o However, only current MP’s made give advice  How does Canada inform a. Governor general calls on the party leader to head government b. He becomes known as the right honorable c. The PM advises to make other appointments to the privy council to assist in the exercise of governing i. Ministers in the cabinet have portfolios and participate in ALL matters of the cabinet ii. With a portfolio, they are politically responsible to other members the parliament, and Canadians (ministerial responsibility) iii. Responsible for the decisions and actions of their departments d. The PM can recommend “Ministers of State” or junior ministers i. Without a portfolio and may not participate in all affaires of cabinet ii. Invited to participate e. Cabinet exercises full authority once sworn in f. Must select MPS to satisfy the principles of responsible government i. Lots of criteria ii. Party and cabinet politics, provincial representation, talent iii. Veteran MPs are often chosen g. The PM ALWAYS appoints a cabinet of his or her party competitors  Ministerial collective responsibility o Support all decisions that are made in cabinet o The executive executes the collective governments of Canada  Cabinet discussions o Discussions in Cabinet not subject to the Freedom of Information Act o PM only intervenes when  Near the end of the discussion and to state the consensus  The make is know that He of She is interested in the Cabinet arriving at a particular outcome o No vote in the cabinet to avoid the development of majority or minority block within the cabinet  Which would cause Collective ministerial responsibility to disappear o All ministers must feel as if they are contributing positively o Cabinet emerges united when a decision is made o Cabinet ministers who disagree with cabinet decisions MUST resign  Joe Poluzzi disagreed with same sex marriage, and had to resign  Other members o The PM may appoint a senator or citizen to the cabinet o Senators usually appointed due to lack of regional representation o Citizens represent strong party/policy credentials  Must run in election ASAP o Ontario usually has the most cabinet members followed by Quebec, BC and Alberta  MPs o If there is only one, you have been blessed as you WILL get a seat at the table o Other MPs may resent his appointment o Balance between francophone and Anglophones  English speaking Quebecers  Religious representation used to be important, but is no longer the case o First Female minister was Ellen Fairclough  Often responsible for HR, health, etc. Roles of PM and cabinet  Principle of primus inter pares  Must represent the people 1. Authority for 6 reasons a. PM leads the governing party b. The PM has the authority of choosing cabinet i. All members of cabinet serve for the PM ii. Contingent on trust and support c. The PM chooses the size and structure of decision making within cabinet i. The PM’s ideals, knowledge and vision of what constitutes government, affects who the PM thinks should be sitting in Cabinet d. PM has the power to appoint a range of public officials i. Usually the most senior members of the civil service ii. Help the PM pass his personal agenda e. The PM is the ONLY one who can liaise the Governor General i. PM has parliamentary influence as a result of this ii. Governor general must always act on the advice of the PM f. The PM is the chief communicator of the government i. Domestically and internationally ii. Internationally he is a diplomat, represents Canada at bi-lateral meetings iii. Domestically, PM is much more visible today Federalism Federalism  Set of governing institutions where political authority is divided between 2 or more levels of government o The two or more levels of government have their distinct sets of responsibilities  Central to the decision making process in Canada  The relationship b/w federal and provincial governments affects how business will be conducted  Federal initiatives will resonate with provinces Federalism in Canada  Result of a compromise  As a bi-national state (ENG, FRE) and differences are organized across those lines  Due to the way Canada is organized, canadians have multiple identities (provincial and national)  Federalism should strike balances (regional and national) Relationship between federal and provincial government  Federalism strives to accommodate difference  Does institutionalise these differences  And perpetuates divisions  Initially federalism did seek to make Ottawa superior over the provinces (in the view of John A Macdonald)  nd Lecture 6: (Oct 2 ) Base points  Federalism continued  The roles and types of departments  The structure of departments, the role of the deputy minister (DM)  How the cabinet decides the decline of DMs and the rise of senior officials to the PM Federalism  Compromise and accommodation  French Canada prefers a m much more decentralized foundation while English Canada prefers centralization  Federalism evolves, because Sir John A wanted Ottawa to be dominant, and now powers are evenly distributed and separated  Banking, currency, military are all federal legislation  POGG is vague and was made that way  Senate was appointed by Ottawa (PM), when is it supposed to be based on regional representation  Role of the courts o POGG only applies under times of national emergency o In terms of mending the BNA act, until 1982 we had to go to London. Largely dependent on failed national negotiations o Judicial committee of the PC, highest court of Canada until 1949  Federalism is very fluid o Competing definitions of federalism (Harper vs Mulroney) o Conceptions of federalism change and so do the nature of negotiations Roles and types of departments  When talking about departments we speak of the workhorses of government  What do they do? o They administer programs  Also administer past programs  Serve specific constituencies and fulfill recognized public needs  The norm within departments is incremental change, due to current administrative practices being rooted in past practices o Develop policy  The bureaucracy is where the store of knowledge is and ministers are the ones who ask bureaucrats to implement them o Specialize in specific fields  Keeping records, bookkeeping o Liaise with provinces  Can be problematic when some provinces agree and others don’t  This is all institutional memory, (why, when, what)  Then communicated through the chain of command and it is studied at every link o Communication must be made with other offices and departments  Official languages commissioner  Privy Council commissioner  Auditor general  Health and industry Canada must liaises over pharmaceutical patents  Industry Canada wants to ensure investment while health Canada wants to consider cost for the provinces Types of departments  Service departments o Most visible o Provide services to the public or general client groups (fisheries Canada) o The most popular with Canadians o Not the most influential in government  Support departments o Most influential o Provide policy and program systems to the government themselves o Rarely liaise and serve the public o Provide information on the social, political, and economic life of Canada to policymakers (Dept of finance and treasury board) o Often smallest departments are the most influential, smaller than service departments o Generally not dispersed across the country (exception with public works and national defence)  Departments Chains of command are multi layered o Minister o Deputy minister o Senior Dept official o Middle managers o Front line public servants o EVERY department functions as such o Clear lines of managerial command and control o Hierarchies are prone to breaking down o Large geographical dispersion is a key factor in that o Very large and complex organizations and as a result, people make mistakes  Crown agencies o Relatively independent of government o Not organized as government departments and not subject to the same kinds of accountability o Answer to a minister but are independent of government o RCMP, Elections Canada Department structure and Roles of DMs The Deputy Minister  Sits are the top of their departments  Not experts, the Senior officials are the real experts  Only the DM liaises with the minister  The administrative head of their departments  The DM is answerable to the minister but also to the PM  The DM commands basically everything within the department  Answers to the minister to make sure the department is fulfilling its duties o Very routine (filling forms, checking boxes)  Orchestrates department, leads managers in staff, makes sure the department has appropriate human and financial resources  Expected to make the minister look good in the eyes of the PM o Because he has to develop the ministers policy agenda o And keep the minister out of trouble by making sure your department is well run o Catch clerical errors, have them revised  The minister takes the blame!  Relatively insulated from the ministers power and authority o Because while he does steer the organization, but is an advisor to the minister as well as the administrator to the minister  The PM must know that the administration of all the departments is being efficiently, effectively, and economically handled rd  Assisted by Associate Deputy Ministers (below the DM) and Assistant deputy ministers (3 most senior) o Role of Assistant DMs is to support the ADMs and DM o Very specialized roles o Policy, operational, or administrative wise o Assisted by many managers, whose role is to supervise the standard work in the departments (very routine work)  Deputy ministers are always responsible for making sure a flow of information occurs up and down  Appointed by PM on the advice of the Clerk of the Privy Council o The most senior civil servant in the country o Head of the public service commission o Drawn from ADM positions  Deputy minister appointed from the civil service  Can transfer around wherever, but most tenancies last 3-4 years  Responsible for providing expert, non-partisan advice o Can the department actually implement this policy?  Ministers are for the most part reasonable o They know they are not experts o Expected that the minister will not meddle in the day to day affaires of the bureaucracy  That doesn’t usually end too well  Key difficulties o New governments  Ideological differences o Removed from office when a new PM is elected  The new PM and premiers feel that his or her policy goals conflict with the intentions of the current DMs o Whenever there is a clash between the minister and DM  The DM leaves his post o PM might reassign the DM to another post or portfolio (may not be important to the govt)  May be completely dismissed o Democratic accountability  Most senior civil servants are there for life th Lecture 7: (Oct 7 ) Base points  How the cabinet decided the decline of DMs, a  The role of federalism and federal structures in decision making process Democratic accountability  Appointed senior civil servant  Up until the Pearson government there was a big problem with the powers the DMs held o Lots of it has to do with the structure of the decision making process  Departmentalized cabinet system o Decentralized o Each minister was responsible for his or her department without links to other depts. o Policy making was very incremental – only dealt with matters as they appeared  Learn as you go  Very little long term planning o There were very few coordinating agencies  DMS major participants in decision making process o Ministers had very strong autonomy o No collective oversight from the cabinet o Only the PM and closest advisors received information o PM responsible for coordinating, planning, and timings of new initiatives  Departmentalized cabinet system o Bottom-out policy o Key players were people within departments o When the PM approved something, it was guaranteed approval o DMs were key because they spent their entire lives in the civil service  Aware that they were indispensable  Known as Mandarins during the 1960s  Pearson implements the institutionalized cabinet o Lasted until Kim Campbell o But changes happened under Pearson o Provided for better coordination o Priorities and planning commission  Established and articulated the government policy agenda  5 areas that the government will focus on o Aimed to enhance the power of ministers by their DMs o Also established cabinet committees responsible for creating recommendations for government actions  Within a very broad jurisdictional field across government  They checked the power of deputy ministers  Greater variety of information  Deputy ministers were now not the gatekeepers of information  PMP is the only committee chaired by the PM o Coordinated with other cabinet committees  Trudeau deepened this system o Introduced central agencies into the mix o To make sure that cabinet optimized its use of time and resources o Wanted to take a more professional approach to policy and decision making in cabinet o Which caused more actors to become involved  The Prime Minister’s office  The Privy Council Office  Department of finance o Macro-economic advisor to the govt  The treasury board o Operational heart of the govt o Microeconomic advisor to the govt  Lead to a Very elaborate system of decision making o Took away DMs power o Increased power of senior official in central agencies o PMP sets the government agenda o Then works with the PCO and Finance o The PM is in constant contact with the PMO o Multi-year revenue stream  With the PCOs help, it is set to multiple agencies and cabinet committees  Departments liaise with other governmental officials (Treasury, finance)  These departments then liaise with civil society actors  A memorandum to Cabinet is produced o Policy proposal from a department o Requires discussion and cabinet ratification to become policy o 3 parts  A recommendation  An analysis  Communication plan o Give ministers the options and administrations of policy o Goes to get approved by a minister  Then sent to the PCO o Who tac on briefing notes who send it to cabinet committees o And the PM and PCO o The minister either then advances or defends the policy o Voting takes place o The PCO writes up the decision made  3 things o Rejected o Accepted o Unanimous approval  If rejected o A report is written o Sent to the department with suggestions to rework  Accepted o Sent to cabinet for ratification and debate o The PMO decide on how to deal with the issues o Finance and treasury board have their objections (represented by minister of finance and treasury board)  Unanimous approval o Approval by the whole of cabinet Institutionalized cabinet system did:  Rank up strategic Prime Minister-ship  Greater centralization of power  PM entirely determines the issues  The PMP, PMO, PCO, Finance, and treasure board all devote their attention to these matters  Routine administrative work is delegated to individual ministers and departments Strategic prime minister-ship:  PM personal interest are always fast tracked This system  Very time consuming  Increased chances for conflicts and chaos  Giving treasury board and finance a bigger role in policy making o Stunted policy making o Had to be in line with their priorities  Clashed with the real world of governing o Real world of governing is short term  Decision making was done on the fly o  Success or failure of a minister depended on his successful navigation of the government and the committee system Kim Campbell  Shifts to a Command Mode of decision making o Later entrenched under Jean Chretien  Wanted to expedite decision making in the cabinet  Things she did o Reduced the size of the cabinet o Replaced PMP with the operations committee Jean Chretien  Eliminates the Operations Committee and does not replace it  Reduced the size of Central agencies staff  Cabinet was in charge of planning and priorities  Seek to establish a more horizontal style of decision making o Each member of the cabinet fully participates  Introduced EMS (expenditure management system) o Enhance the economy and efficiency of government operations o Government could implement and develop policies on their own  Expected his ministers to be very independent and use their authority  Court government o The PM monopolises key strategic matters o Surrounds himself with a few select ministers and senior advisors  Reasons o Deficit reduction  Defined everything a department could or could not do Paul Martin  Continued along the command path  Vowed to be different from Chretien o Allowed MPs to participate in policymaking and decision making o Fell by the wayside due to a minority government Harper  Increases power at the Center  Everything now has to flow through the PMO o NOTHING gets approved without the PMO  Court government they becomes entrenched o The cabinet is increasingly becoming bypassed o Free trade was never discussed in the Cabinet o No real check on the PM (favoured figure) General trend over last 40 years  Makes policy announcement, scrambles to effectuate it  For power to be concentrated in the PCO, PMO, and Central Agencies The PCO  Always focused on the desires of the PM  Transition planning o The first few weeks of government where the PM makes his policy objectives known  Draws up mandate letters for ministers o Content will var o Based on whether a minister is a veteran or a rookie o Always outline the PMs expectation and what legislations will be important  PCO clerk acts as PMs deputy minister o Always closely working with the PM Federalism and federal decision making structures Processes  Will affect decision making Classical federalism  Practiced until the 40s  Respects the decision of powers in the state Judicial Committee of the Privy Council  Very strict in its interpretation of the BNA act of 1867 The end of Classical federalism  The great depression  The Rowell-Sirois commission (actually prolonging the depression)  WWII, as Ottawa had emergency powers and usurped provincial powers o The national government could actually be an effective macro-economic manager  Emergence of the Welfare state in Canada o Saw Ottawa assuming more control over policy fields o BNA act was amended  Ottawa accepted the Recommendations of the Rowell sirois commission o Led to the development of healthcare, university education o Need to erect new administrative structures to manage governmental affaires Cooperative federalism  1945-1960  Cooperation with the provincial government o Ottawa sought to establish national programs in areas of health and social policy o Cost-sharing programs with the provinces o Ottawa agreed to pay 50% of all costs for the programs  Federalism becomes and administrative matter o Most decisions surrounding inter-governmental affairs go through ministers first o The executive governs  Quebec was the lone objector o Opposed Ottawa interventions o Backwater prior to the 60s o All social services provided by the catholic church  Key feature o National agenda was set at the First-Ministers conferences  Always about money (program funding)  Only not on the agenda when aboriginal issues are on the agenda o Always affects the PMs agenda o Premiers don’t have to worry about the PM’s thoughts about them o Where priorities have been set Competitive federalism  Where Quebec transforms federalism and practices  Pressures from bellow emerging  Conflict between Ottawa and the provinces erupted o Quiet revolution (modernizing the province)  Quebec begins to head the charge for a greater share of Ottawa tax revenue  The real fight for Quebec was that it wanted special status in policy areas o We’re different, we need special powers o Quebec pension plan, linked to Quebec’s modernization program o Took QPP funds to reinvest into the province o The Opt-Out  Take control over a policy field but get compensated (Ottawa seeds tax points) o The Rise of the PQ in the 70s  Levesque argues that the French and English have much different conceptions of federalism  The fiscal crisis of the state o Other provinces started to resent equalisation fees o Quebec want Total control over policy levers  Worsens in 73 (Alberta) o Province centred view vs Ottawa centered vies  Inter-governmental affairs become acrimonious o Provinces and Ottawa are arguing over the content of policy o Saw the rise of actual ministries dedicated to inter-governmental affairs Constitutional federalism  1982  Engendered by the 1982 constitution act  Mulroney in 1984 won the election and re-opened the constitutional debate o Bring Quebec in but also is cognoscente of western alienation o Mulroney states he will govern Canada as a collaborative partnership  Ottawa had to bring Quebec into the fold, Open the constitution again  Problems:  Meech Lake Accord of 1987 o Resurgence of Quebec nationalism o Failed due to Elijah harper  Charlottetown accord o Gave Quebec special powers to control certain policy areas  1995 referendum o Was a manifestation of the grievances built up since the 1987 Meech Lake accord o Canada nearly breaks up o In response, there is now a trend towards respecting provincial jurisdiction (Chretien)  Certain break from Cooperative federalism o No more national programs without provincial confrontation  2006: Harper becomes PM, wants a complete break from previous parliaments Open federalism  Gov’t will absolutely respect provincial jurisdiction  “I intend not to use the federal spending power”  Respect Quebec as a distinct political identity  Don’t need Quebec to govern Lecture 8 (Oct 9 ) Base points  Understanding hiring and firing in the public sector  Representation in the public sector I: Bilingualism and Biculturalism  Representation in the public sector II: Employment Equity  Labour relations in the federal civil service Understanding Hiring and Firing in the PS  The government is the country’s largest employer  Looking at the PS, they employ a very broad range of workers  Health care workers, ER Doctors, Education, Garbage men  Department size and composition is always changing  Largest government expansion happen in the 60s and 70s* o Better finances o People felt the gov’t could play a good role in their lives  Visions of what the state could do while expanded o Lyndon Johnson’s great society o Trudeau’s Just society program  Gov’t still plays a positive role in people’s lives Hiring  Done on the merit principle  Crown agencies recognize the merit principle  It used to be done on the patronage system o All appointments done on the party affiliation o Lost election = lost job  The winner of the election had the right to choose their bureaucracy  Merit principle: Started in 1880s o Sir John A Established the board of civil service examiners o Assisted DMs in selecting staff o Ministers could exercise full authority over hiring and firing  Laurier passes the civil service act of 1908 o All Canadians should have a reasonable opportunity to work in Ottawa o Only applied to jobs in Ottawa (inside service) o Set up the civil service comission  WW1 brought merit to the forefront of the civil service o Didn’t want incompetent people running anything o Scandals cost service men their lives in the war  Robert Borden: Civil service act of 1918 o Made merit apply to the entire civil service o His reforms set up the public service commission  Make sure that Canadians received the highest standards of service o Made the election process much fairer  Codify rules and procedures o Made hiring very bureaucratic o Managers will do as much as possible to avoid posting a job opening  Patronage remains o Lots of contractual work is done based on party support o Appointments still made by Orders in Council o Ambassadorships and missions abroad are still made on the basis of patronage o Character of the judiciary reflects the government of the day  Despite patronage existing o There is still an element of merit to it o Legitimate and illegitimate patronage o Become rarer and rarer for an unqualified individual to receive an appointment  Governments do not want criticism  Still difficult to find qualified people Staffing decisions  All positions are subject to job classification o Determines the job criteria o Must make decision when it comes to staffing o Determines wages or salaries o Excessively general and very subjective  Always subject to interpretation by managers  Problems o Slow (rules-based) o Lots of red tape o Predisposition about the people they wish to hire (patronage) o Staffing (must anticipate future requirements)  Must upgrade employees skills  Takes years for an improved kill to show benefit to an Organization o Qualified means: You have the skills o The best: has the skills and more  Results in higher job requirements and credentials o Connections still matter with Merit  Will give you tips on how to present yourself (specific ways to write your resume) Firing  Very difficult  Departments are recognizing with things needing to change Public vs Private  Private sector workforce does not need to be representative of the public  Public sector does  How representative do they need to be?  Public sector must comply with policies and principles during hiring o Recognising the public service as meritocratic and equitable Bilingualism and Biculturalism  Canada is a Bilingual and Bicultural society  Has affected Canada’s politics  French minority concentrated into Quebec  The federal civil service used the be overwhelmingly English o French Canadians very poorly represented in the federal civil service  Turning point: Pearson’s royal commission o bilingualism and biculturalism o The steps needed were to be taken with the two “founding nations” o French and English seen as the 2 founding nations  Bi and Bi commission wanted to know what steps needed to be taken in order to give the French and English the same amount of say o French and English should be Canada’s official languages o Ottawa should be a bilingual city  The quiet revolution – Jean Lasage o Did cultivate a French identity o Quebecois: People living in the province of Quebec o Quebec city resident did not help advance the French speakers outside of Quebec  Recognizing bilingualism in the federal civil service o Glasgo commission o How to improve public sector management o Endorsed the ideas of making a civil service career attractive to English and French Canadians  1969 – Trudeau’s official languages act and official languages program o Entrenched bilingualism and biculturalism in Canada o Changes  Federal government had to serve citizens in the language of their choice  Official languages act o Committed Ottawa to operating in both official languages  Charter of rights and freedoms o Part of the 1982 constitution o Made French and English Canada’s official languages  Results o French Canadians are over-represented in the civil service  Classification o English essential (60%) o French essential o Bilingual essential (40%) Lecture 9: (Oct 21 ) Base Points  Official bilingualism continued  Employment Equity  Labour relations in the Federal Civil Service Bilingualism  French Canadians are over represented as they are more likely to be bilingual  French Canadians are thereby much more competitive in the civil service Classifications  English essential (60%)  French essential (less than 1%)  Bilingual essential (40%) Results  Discrimination against French Canadians has been eliminated  New sets of questions have emerged o Has Ottawa become more responsive to French Canadians? o Doe French Canadians recognize this responsiveness? o Has official bilingualism altered English Canadians’ relationship with Ottawa? Events  English still dominates the routine activities of the civil service  French language training is inadequate o Strange tests  French Canadians routinely complain about the lack of French manuals, software, work tools  Another problem is that the language profiles regularly fail to reflect the jobs needs  Anglophones generally are unable to maintain competency in French  How much representation is enough? Should it be proportional? Employment Equity  Emerged in the late 1960 and 1970 o Rise of the women’s movement o Aboriginal movements o Policy of multiculturalism  Places more demands on the civil service with regards to the representation of Canada  The vertical mosaic o Canada is multicultural o At the top of the structure it is all WASPS  White able bodied males were in positions of power o Would self-select employees for hiring and advancement  Pink collar jobs o Low level administrative work o Jobs women were relegated to  Representativeness o Make government more responsive o All ethnicities would receive representation o Members of ethnic groups could be ambassadors  Also said o Non-english white groups have made important contributions o 197 human rights act prohibited discrimination in federal institutions and federal legislations o Charter of rights and freedoms section 15-2  Exempted employment equity from challenges  1979 Davignon committee o Study of representativeness in the civil service o Criticised the lack of representation in the civil service o Recommended that suspending merit could be justified in righting past wrongs  1984 Abella commission o R
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