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PAP1301 Final review

23 Pages

Public Administration
Course Code
Joseph Roman

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Final Review PAP1301A “Could be on the exam” and Lists Origins of the state  States are a European form of political organizations and institution  Spread across the world through colonialism  Except for the Vatican, Singapore, Lichtenstein every country is a state What caused the spread from Europe?  Colonialism o Once independence was gained from the political centerm staes were formed around the world o Homogenous: N Korea, S Korea, Japan  War was instrumental in State development o The 30 year’s war o Largely fought over religion o A revolt in Bohemia (Czech republic) Catholics vs Protestant o Interference from neighboring jurisdictions in Bohemia’s affaires o Ends in 1648, treaty of Westphalia  Established the idea of sovereignty  Established fixed territorial boundaries  Process of establishing sovereignty lasts from 1648-1989 o Treaty of Westphalia states that states  Has the right to go about its business without interference from other states  States the subjects owed their allegiance to the state and only the state  Overlapping loyalties must be abolished o What enabled states to survive was the capability to continue making war  Advances in armor, firepower  Enabled states to protect their borders and sovereignty. Those being  External sovereignty: ability of a state to maintain its existence o Forces recognition by others, and defines boundaries  Internal sovereignty: state has the sole authority to make laws within its jurisdiction o State cannot be a state without internal sovereignty o Max Weber  Called single allegiance “Legal Rational Authority”  Ridding yourself of personal allegiances, allegiances allowed to both rules and jurisdictions  “This is a feature of modernity” o The divine right of kings  Allegiance is owed to me because God said so  War helped to secularize politics  Capitalism o Whether you love it or hate it, capitalism is the most productive economic system ever o Rise occurred in the 17 and 18 century o Complimented the ability of states to exercise internal and external sovereignty o Make above an beyond what is actually needed o Means some of the same things as war making means  Both need a lot of infrastructure (communications, roads, canals)  Can also be used for protection o Did contribute to the death of feudalism  Free labour What do we talk about when discussing the state? Features of a state (3 and 4 subsets of 2)  A set of rules and regulations, carried out by governments  Cannot rule effectively if you don’t know what’s going on 1. All states have governments 2. Made up of many institutions o Not a coherent actors o Only become coherent during times of crisis (war, social upheaval) o Without crisis, institutions are often in conflict with each other, or overlap each other o Health and Agriculture clash during Mad Cow disease 3. Bureaucracies o Rules based o Very efficient o Depersonalization, no exceptions to be made for anyone 4. Institutions o Designed to monitor people’s everyday lives o To gather information on population o Make populations more governable o Creating categories 5. Cultural dimensions (Includes 6) o A link between people to generate a feeling o Constant application of violence to assert legitimacy will eventually run out o Languages differ by region (Italy, Quebec, France) 6. Political representation o 2 events o American revolution of 1776 o French revolution of 1789  Gov’ts must represent the general will  All citizens are equal Monarchies  Often rulers were not of the people  Do not speak the same language of their people States  Divided along territorial lines  A sub-national form of administration  In countries like Canada, the roles of sub-national units are constitutionally protected o Unitary states however, can change regional legislation at the will of Parliament The Narrow Sense of the State/ Integral sense  The sequestration of responsibilities at a particular state level o Certain responsibilities reside at certain levels of the state  National, sub-national o Decisions at one level affect the decisions at another level State organization  Depends largely on historical circumstance Federalism  Classical federalism o Is about respecting jurisdiction o Responsible for your responsibilities and your only o Respect the division of power within the state  Co-operative federalism o Looking at how national and sub-national units work together on specific matters o These divisions of power ate very difficult to differentiate Managing the public sphere Bureaucracies  Important  Carry out the day-to-day work of the state Modern bureaucracy  Coined by Max Weber (most important to this course) (EXAM)  Theory of bureaucracy****** Rational legal Ideal type  The de-personalization of Ruling  How to organize knowledge o How things work and why they work  Not the best way to assess the strengths or weaknesses of bureaucracies Features of bureaucracy*** 1. A hierarchy of official position 2. Composed of salaried professional a. Appointed and promoted 3. A bureaucracy applies formal rules in a uniform manner 4. Bureaucracies are rational a. Formulas to determine their decision 5. Bureaucracy as bookkeeping a. There is always a paper trail What do bureaucracies do? 1. Bureaucracies make policies a. Something that seeks to achieve a specific goal or outcome b. Becomes public when a politician deems something is worthy to be debated and considered in the public sphere c. Yet it is ALWAYS political 2. Master of politicians a. Bureaucracies possess a significant store of knowledge b. Don’t owe allegiance to any politician or party c. Sensitive to the messy nature of policy-making How bureaucracies work as far as rationality and independence is concerned  Do they do it absolutely? o Rules o Know the steps they can skip and what is important o Following rules only under certain circumstances o Work to rule campaign – Thereby reducing efficiency  Must regularly report back to ministers  Hierarchical organizations are not always efficient o Sometimes a bottom up approach is prefered Max Weber  No other theorist has influenced the practice, research, and theory of PA as much as German Sociologist Max Weber  Based on the ancient studies of bureaucracies in Egypt, Rome, Chine, etc , he constructed what came to be known as the “Ideal type” of model of bureaucracy  He argued that bureaucracy was essentially a system of administration out on a continuous basis by trained professionals according to prescribed rules  Weber saw bureaucracy as a “rational, systematic, logical, and scientific approach to organization” Features of the Ideal Type of bureaucracy  Hierarchy: People have cleary defined roles based on division of labour and is answerable to a superior  Continuity: People have full time salaries and tenure occupations and career structures for life  Impersonality: Work is based on prescribed rules and written record, not on the whims and caprices of individuals  Expertise: Personnel, selected based on the basis of merit, are trained and control access to knowledge and stored files  Political Neutrality: People should serve any government that is in power at any given time Criticisms of the Ideal Type  It is an ideal type and may not work as planned in the real world  It may lead to systemic discrimination against people who, due to circumstances beyond their control, do not have access to participate in the system o Women, minorities, Disabled  “while impersonal rules may protect individuals from arbitrary treatment at the hands of officials, they may also be used to frustrate popular demands for social justice Theory of bureaucracy 1. A managers authority derives from the position which he holds a. Authority: the power to hold people accountable for their actions and make decisions in references to the use of organizational resources 2. People should occupy positions because of their performance, not their social standing a. In some industries personal contacts and relations, not job-related skills, influence hiring and promotional decisions 3. The extent of each positions formal authority and task responsibilities, and its relationship to other positions in the Org should be clearly defined a. When as task and authority associated with various positions in the Org are clearly defined, managers and workers know what is expected from them and what to expect from each other 4. Authority can be exercised effectively in an organization when positions are arranged hierarchically, so employees know whom to report to and who reports to them a. Managers must create organizational hierarchy of authority that makes it clear who reports to whom and manager and workers should go if conflicts arise 5. Managers must create a well-defined system of rules, standard operating procedures, and norms so that they can effectively control behavior within the Org a. SOPs are specific sets of written instructions about how to perform a certain aspect of a task Roles of PM and cabinet  Principle of primus inter pares  Must represent the people 1. Authority for 6 reasons a. PM leads the governing party b. The PM has the authority of choosing cabinet i. All members of cabinet serve for the PM ii. Contingent on trust and support c. The PM chooses the size and structure of decision making within cabinet i. The PM’s ideals, knowledge and vision of what constitutes government, affects who the PM thinks should be sitting in Cabinet d. PM has the power to appoint a range of public officials i. Usually the most senior members of the civil service ii. Help the PM pass his personal agenda e. The PM is the ONLY one who can liaise the Governor General i. PM has parliamentary influence as a result of this ii. Governor general must always act on the advice of the PM f. The PM is the chief communicator of the government i. Domestically and internationally ii. Internationally he is a diplomat, represents Canada at bi-lateral meetings iii. Domestically, PM is much more visible today Interest groups and the role of policymaking  Political parties are not the only way to advance interest within democracies  Interest groups generally do have a bad reputation o They are characterized are interrupting to the close relationship between citizens and legislatures o Based a lot on special interests (considered to be a judgment call) o Objective view of interest groups  Formed from state activity (inform the formation)  Formed through social change o Formed in order to influence gov't o 3 types of interest groups  Protective groups  Look after their member interest, they form on occupational (industrial organization, business associations) lines but potential for geography to play a role in this (neighborhood association)  Promotional Bodies  Advocate ideas, identifies, policies and values - these are 'ideal types'  Episodic interest group  Emerge when there is a sudden issue of public importance, and once the issue is solved that group disappear (ex: anti-free trade group). However, this group can involve into something more permanent  These interest groups influence public policy and gov't, it is political action, issues only get addressed if they become politicized, it has to be recognized as something worthy as public discussion  How do interest groups affect govt policies and how effectiveness vary? (through 3 ways) (could be on the exam) ***  Status of the group: (2 types of status - insider or outsider group)  Insider: means it will have more direct access to govt (know key legislature, know what offices they will have to go to etc.) they develop because of networking, need to know how to maintain a relationship with the govt in order to keep their insider status,  Outsider: they have no access to govt, sometime they are excluded from govt because of different ideologies, interest goals, platform etc. they can choose to remain outside of the political process, they prefer to protest the policy making process but does not mean they cannot influence, usually they use political protest in order to raise awareness about an issue that is not being addressed or represented well  Political opportunity structures: trying to figure out what the potential points of penetration to the state are, legislature are important (through opposition parties), certain parties will be aligned with certain interest groups based on similar ideologies, you don’t have to just focus on the domestic states they do resort to international bodies in order to create pressure on domestic states, so you will see interest groups go to bodies to more international known courts  Competition (opponents): question of resources at your disposal, material, human and time resources compared to others o Networking with one another is also important, and creating policy communities, within these you are seeing govt agencies being involved o Interest groups tend to be expert driven, because science and science related issue become for integral to the policy making process, increasingly even within the social sciences which are finally utilizing scientific research to support their claim (anti-child poverty groups)  This could lead to decision making by experts Deliberative democracy and citizen engagement  Reestablish relationship between citizens and the representatives  Deliberative democracy: focuses on a genuine dialogue between govt and individual citizens, rest on 4 principles: o Reciprocity o Public reasoning (citizens and govt have to justify their claims) o Need for publicity (decisions must be transparent by both govt and citizens) o All citizens have an equal opportunity to participate  Deliberative democracy in Canada - royal commission  Citizen engagement took off in the 1980's o Consultation was only successful if a lot of people attended to it 1990'S: Reduce peoples dissatisfaction with citizen engagement The Evolution of decision making****  Budget-making was simple until the 60s o Incremental line budgeting**: take the previous years budget, and add marginal costs needed to keep the department running  Inflation, changes in population, changes in service levels  Bottom up, prepared by middle managers as they were most familiar with the organization, sent up for approval o Performance budgeting  Efficiency evaluations get built in to budget making (financial inputs, and service outputs)  Slight variation on incremental line budgeting  Trudeau comes in o Planning, programing, budgeting systems (PPBS)  Reflected Trudeau’s preference for rationalism within the public sector  Link strategic thought to organization activity and spending decision  Gov’t activities funded on the basis of what policies priorities and objectives  Create multi-year funding proposals to meet the plans established that the PPBS was designed to facilitated  Shifted power to hands of senior officials who wanted greater centralization of budgets  Removed middle managers from the picture  Introduced central agencies, and gave them oversight o fthe budgetary process (PCO, treasury, finance)  Established a new paradigm all other agencies ha to follow  Priorities of the central agencies became pervasive to all departments o Very different from Incremental line budgeting  Recognized the need to like planning and prioritization with operation management controls  Same time had to focus on budgetary controls, became much more technical  Helped to entrenched the notion the priorities and objectives and be programmed  Also allowed for the assessment of qualitative and quantitative programs o A, B, and X budgets  A: money is earmarked for existing and approve programs  B: New initiatives which still had to be assessed  X: allocated to low priority items o Problems  Finding the priorities depends ont eh comparative rankings between departments  What’s important to one department may not be for another  A department being funded depended less on priority and more on the influence wielded by the minister at the cabinet table  Problems with long term planning: The future is unknown  Economy Is prone to crashing and the best plans can turn messy  Unexpected developments affect spending and disregard the economy Joe Clarke  o Transformed the PPBS into the policy and expenditure management system (PEMS)  All about controlling government spending o Took the PPBS structure and added political administrative decision making  Did so to enhance the role of minister  s in financial management by relatively decentralizing budgetary decision making to cabinet committees o Allows for forecasting revenue and expenditure for the next 4 years o Finance was given the responsibility of writing the multi-year fiscal plan  Had to consider PMP priorities  Made a foundation to allocate funding to the committees of cabinet o The cabinet committees divided the sectors funds and each policy sector would receive the share of total funding in “the envelope”  Funding level and reference level  Was called a policy reserve for funding new initiative or enhancing exiting programs o Operating reserve establish  For emergencies or unforeseen circumstances o Each department had to drop their own plans to assist other departments in spending o Strategic overview – reviewed by the PM and PMP  Reviewed governmental objectives in light of authorities  Looked at new policy options  Reviewed program evaluations and actions o PMP used all this info to evaluate each departments position within department planning o PCO then reviews the ALL and helps finance the multi-year plan  Multi-year operational plan o Assess planning trajectory over a 3 year period  Budget operation plan o Had to be done and approved by the treasury board  Effects of PEMS o Had very few effects on govt pending o Only 5% of affecting o Did allow for finance and treasury board to exert and influence on the budget making process  Mulroney o Introduced greater centralization to the PEMS o PM takes greater control by establish operations and greater review committee o The PEMS is under stress by the 1990s  Because it only concerned expenditures o 1994 finance, and treasury redesign the PEMS with the PCO o Expenditure management system (EMS)  Designed to reduce and constrain spending  Gave government depts. And agencies more latitude in developing the budgets o Only allowed for A budgets  Everything had to be done out of the A budget  In order to create a new policy or program treasury board and the cabinet had to be involved o Ems replace multi-year and budget-year plans with departmental plan  Provided 3 year perspective on priorities and objectives  Had to be done in light of existing funding  Drawn up by treasury board and integrated in the managing for results program  Assess all departmental business plans for incompetence  Harper 2007 o The New EMS o Different because 100% of govt spending is revived over a 4 year cycle o Strategic review: focus on the economy of the public sector (VFM) o 3 criteria  Increase efficiency and effectiveness  Focus on core roles (programs and services should be aligned with the federal role and delivered by the best possible department  Meet priorities of Canadians o Must go to a third party (consultants o 5% of spending must be reallocated once the review is complete NPM Programs o Make bureaucracy more efficient o Don’t have to embrace NPM to increase the efficiency of the public sector  Fundamental differences o Injecting the public sector with an entrepreneurial spirit o These ideas never o The narrative the public sector and governments are bad, and that businesses are more efficient and therefore good  The Lambert report o 1979 - focused on spending government departments and assessing the importance of public sector executive o Assessed as if they were working in the private sector o Recommended allowing greater flexibility in decision making because of central agencies – slowing down the process o Felt that having to report to central agencies stifled efficiency of bureaucrats o Recommends overhauling the entire bureaucracy (nearly impossible) o Left on the shelf o Evolutionary change rather than revolutionary change  Trudeau established the Productivity improvement Program – 1983*** o Adopted some of the recommendations from the lambert report o Focus on how to streamline rules and procedures to improve service delivery o Designated to the Treasury board  Mulroney – 1984 o Eliminating the deficit o Reforming the public service o Making Canada an Entrepreneurial country  Ministerial task force on Program Review (Not on Exam) o Goal was to eliminate unnecessary red tape o Streamline bureaucracies o Introduce private sector business practices into the civil service o FAILED because most departments actively failed their expenditures and practices  Reforming the Public sector o Always very opportunistic about it o But he soon realized it would not work  1986 – increase ministerial authority and accountability o Sponsored by treasury board 1. Promote flexibility in departments 2. Decrease reporting requirements 3. Simplify the policymaking process o Enables departments and agencies to access information outside the public service o Departments started to let competitive contracts o Also able to start classifying positions themselves, outside the executive category o It ended up reducing the number of reports that needed to be sent to treasury board  1989 – PS2000*** o Have a reinvigorated public sector o Established 10 task forces – each headed by a DM required to analyze a particular component of the public sector o Combination of NPM under Mulroney – seek to entirely decentralize decision making within the public sector o Flatten hierarchies and empower managers o FAILS – because central agencies fought with departments and other central agencies. These fights led to letting managers manage  Also because a lot of line managers feared empowerment o Two issues that caused it to fail 1. Deficits – Mulroney promised to manage the growth of the deficit  Wage bills being 50% of organizational costs  Led to a top-down approach and contradicts empowerment and letting management manage  Declare a public wage freeze and reduce the managers power (no consultation) 1. Al-Mashat Affair – During the gulf war  Media finds out that Mohammed Al-Mashat was allowed to enter Canada  Was the ambassador for Iran to the US  Mulroney, Joe Clark, And McDougal all blame civil servants for that decision  Holding bureaucrats for any bad decisions, but also told to take initiative Sponsorship Scandal  Focus on the role of the Exec*** o Why isn’t responsible government being respected and proactive? o Why isn’t the executive answerable to the legislature?  Have the legislature play a more active role  Review spending plans more closely  This reduces the likelihood of mismanagement and scandals  Would highlight who is responsible for what  Real cause of the Scandal was the concentration of power in the Executive (The PMO) Governance:  When concerning PA and governments it has only been a term for the past 20 years Physical crisis of the state  In the 70s  Governments run up against a whole host of limits  End of the post war era  1945-1970 – economic boom  Then came recession  Governments became less and less able to meet the demands placed upon them and citizens became less confident in government abilities Neoliberalism:  A reaction to the recession  Belief that gov’t is not the solution but the problem  Government should promote markets  A Belief in less regulation and less taxes  Too many demand of the state, gov’t cannot do everything Individualism:  A shift where people became more individualistic  Pressures on the national state above and below it, Above o Globalization o Deregulation of financial markets  Below o Regional identities start to articulate themselves o Seen in Quebec, Scotland, Northern Ireland  Prosperous regions within states start to act more aggressively (Bavaria, South England) The Gulliver Effect:  National states were too large to solve small problems (economic problems in small regions) while also being too small to solve large problems (Globalization) The Turn!:  Then came the turn towards Governance  Governanc
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