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Public Administration
Joseph Roman

Lecture 14 GovernanceTurn to GovernanceTraditionally in the domain of constitutional and legal affairs Became a part of the vocab in the last 2 decades reflects changeregarded as transformation of state not a declineseen as more flexible kind of government that can adapt to circumstancesTurn to governance occurred in 70s because of the crisis of state due to the end of the golden age of capitalism the economic boom at the end of the post war era which caused wages to go above inflation and the recessession Government needed a new way to solve problemsDuring this crisis citizens lost faith in the ability of government since it became less able to meet the demands of citizens and because of the events of the 60s70s ex Watergate Governments felt pressure from above from globilization and below from regional identities that wanted to pursue regional interests Felt the reprucussions of a Guliver effect national states were too large to solve small problems subnationally but too small to solve large problems associated with globilization Thus began the belief that government was the problem and the rise of liberalism which places importance on individualism freedom equality of opportunity etc while stressing that these values and their policies have to be balanced with collective wellbeing of society Neoliberalism elected Thatcher Regan and Mulroney events There was a shift to an individualistic culture and political pressure on the national state because of deregulation of financial markets and new policy making with the rise of free trade With that came the idea in government that there should be less regulation and taxes in reactions to the many demands placed on state Internal changes and the shift to governance were demonstrated here fiscal crisis and the focus on political culturalism exerted from rights talkincrease in individualism and individual rights lead to greater awareness and more groups asserting their rights which forced public sector under microscope and injected flexibility to bureaucracyshift of collective values to individualistic values because citizens more aware of global issuesThe rise of governance occurred in the 80s It centered on public sector reform Crisis usually drives change in the public sector because it gives a window of oppourtunity to transform practices and programs At the time citizens were disenchanted with what the government would say theyd do and what they did because taxes were going up but services werent changing This put public pressure on sectors to change practices in the following 4 ways that were driven by budgets concerns because the need to be thrifty was emphasized at the time werent the best just wonMaintain system tighten up rules and regulationsModernize the system making public agency more flexible empowermentMarketize system provide for competition in public sectoroMargret Thatcher forced public sector agencies to bid on contracts 80 contracts were won by public sectorMinimize administrative system privatizing parts of public sector farm out tasks to private sectorExternal changes and the rise of governance were demonstrated here domestic dynamic to rights talkStates must govern with international standards in mindGroups organized to put pressurePublic sector demands increasedEconomic globalization policies are coordinated differentlyto become interdependent with other states emergence of international groupsPolicy making global implications in decision making ex G20 coordinating budgets which forces cooperation in marketsImportance of Governance and defining itImportantMatters because it turned attention to how people in power were governing to better see the limits and possibilities for authorityHelped to see power in relational terms and contextualize context affects how authority is executedThemesoProcess of rule going from fixed forms to fluid onesoEmphasis of selfgoverning networks interested in connections between state and nonstate actorsoAddressing social changeWhat it isDefining it governance is concerned with the ordered condition of rule coordination of socio political systems and steering how they affect outcomes with resourcesAnswers questions of how processes and why outcomesbuzz word used as a synonym for governmentGovernment decision making body that creates and carries out rules and regulation of state formal institutional process which operates at state level to collective actionWhat it doesDraws on and studies non state beyond government and state actors while also going beyond governmentoruling isnt a top down processIdentifies overlap between public and private spheres acknowledging that states and society shape and interact with each otherRecognizes overlap in policies and institutionsostates made up of institutions with their own logic so the decisions made in one will affect anotherEx health Canada and ministry of industries or ministry of transportation and environmentoComplexity of stateRecognizes that nonstate actors wont wait for government to act and can organize autonomouslyoEx advocates for childcare arent implemented by governmentSees possibility of solving problem without government orecognizes role of 3rd sector ex United way salvation army NGOFocuses on outcomes institutions structure processes in governanceEffective GovernanceSimplify practices and models to reduce complexity and make sure relevant to objectives carried outrecognize that there has to be dynamic element create dynamic interaction when providing for interactionBuild methods to coordinate action across certain social forces find a way for actors with competing interests have a dialogue between each other
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