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PAP 3310 Final Exam Review

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Department
Public Administration
Course
PAP3310
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
PAP3310FinalExamReviewIdentifyandexplainthesignificanceofresearchanditsparticularitiesinpublicadministrationResearchoCanbedefinedasasystematicsearchforanswerstoquestionsusingaclearlyspecifiedprocessforgatheringandanalyzingdataoEmpiricalinformationcomesfromexperimentobservationsorexperiencesoInPublicAdminitshouldleadtodeeperunderstandingandinsighttoguidepolicychoicesandprogramimplementationoUsedforanumberofreasonsingovernmentGatheringHRinformationDeterminingtheeffectivenessofaprogramPlanningforfutureprogramsUniversitiesagenciesbureaucratsorconsultingfirmsusedtogatherdataSignificanceoPublicadministratorsneedtohavethebestinfopossibletoguidedecisionsoPublicadministratorsworkforthecommongoodandmustbewellinformedParticularitiesoResearchingpublicadminisnotlikestudyingahardscienceToomanyvariablesoHavetosearchforthecommongroundamongdivergentperspectivesoResearchiscostlyandtimeconsumingoConstantchangeofgovernmentsleadstotradeoffsbetweenqualityandcostsoComplexissuesoftenresearchedEgdeathpenaltyoPublicadministratorshavetoalsorealizethatresearchmaynotguidedecisionsOperatesinapoliticalcontextwithmultipleinputsoNumerousthreatsFundingconcernsPoliticaldecisionsPolicydecisionsmaybebasedonideologynotfactsIdentifythethreeconceptsrelatedtocausalexplanationTheoriesoCoherentgroupofgeneralpropositionsoVerifiedexplanationaccountingforknownfactsorphenomenaoArethefoundationofprogramsandpoliciespublicprogramsbasedonbeliefthatifwedothisXwecancauseadesiredresultYHypothesisoAconjectureputforthtopredictlikelyrelationshipsthatwillbeobservedifatheoryistrueoBasisfortestingtheoriesoUsuallyafirststepinaresearchprojectVariablesoObservablecharacteristicsofaconceptEgFactorsthataffectemployeesatisfactionoCandeterminetheimpactofeachvariablethroughmeasurementoAssociatedwithvaluesValuesaretheconcretecategoriesormeasuresofthevariablesGendervarableMorFvalueoFourwaystomeasurevariablesNominalmeasuresvaluesmeasuredbyanameorcategoryareusuallyquitedescriptiveanddontinvolveanytypeoforderOrdinalHavenamesandcategoriesbutvalueshaveanordertothemNumbersusedinordinalmeasuresarenotrealtheymerelyanchoraconceptonameasurementscaleoEghighestlevelofeducationIntervalRepresentnumbersbutdontcontainazeropointoEgSATRatioIncludesconcretenumberswithazeropointoEgincomeDemonstratetheprocessinwhichyoudeterminecausalexplanation1Therehastobealogicaltheoryconnectingvaraibles2Therehastobeanappropriatetimeorderthecausalvariablemustcomefirst3TherehastobecovariationaThreetypesiDirectrelationshipwhenbothvariableschangeinthesamedirectioniiInversewhenthetwovariableschangeinoppositedirectionsiiiLinearandnonlinearastheindependentvariablechangesatasteadyratethedependentvariablealsochangesatasteadyrate4AllotherpossibleexplanationsforobservedchangesareruledoutthismeanseliminatingrivalexplanationsBasicsetupofcausalityisXleadstoYwithXbeingtheindependentvariableandYbeingthedependentvariableIndependentvariableChangingvariableDependentvariablechangedvariableWhatisvaliditywhatarethedifferenttypesofvalidityandwhatthreatensitValidityoTheextenttowhichaconceptconclusionormeasurementiswellfoundedandcorrespondsaccuratelytotherealworldanddetermineswhetherastudyisabletoscientificallyanswerthequestionsitisintendedtoanswer5typesoDescriptivevalidityThefactualaccuracyasreportedbytheresearchers
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