PAP3350 Class notes Fall 2013

21 Pages
163 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Public Administration
Course
PAP3350
Professor
Joshua Zaato
Semester
Fall

Description
PAP3350: Public Policy development Joshua Zaato [email protected] Lecture 1 (Sept 11 ): Introduction to Public Policy and Public Policy Making Our overarching objective is to:  Understand the importance, nature, and limits of public policies, the success criteria and factors  Identify the numerous stakeholders, processes, and methods that lead to the formulation of better public policies o What do they bring to the table  Learn, know, and master the instruments, tools, and methodological approaches used for the designing evidence based policy making  Improve our ability to evaluate public policy performance and the master the latest and numerous assessment and evaluation methods What is public policy?  A public policy is a complex phenomenon consisting of numerous decisions made by numerous individuals and organizations in government  In this class we will define a “Public policy as anything a government chooses to do or not to do” o Whether or not to bomb Syria o Ruling for same sex marriage in Ontario o Can be quiet, or very controversial  When we talk about public policy therefore, we fundamentally mean the actions and in-actions of government. Public policies therefore involve a choice made by government o Must decide whether or not to do something  This choice is usually made by individuals staffing the various government ministries, departments, and agencies  Public policies could therefore be “negative or a non-decision”. This happens when a government decides to do nothing but maintain the status quo Understanding public policy  “Public policy is a complex phenomenon consisting of numerous decisions made by numerous individuals or organizations in government”  One way of understanding public policy is to link certain policy outputs and outcomes to the nature of the political regime o In the liberal democracies, public policies are the results of compromises, bargains and settlements (The USA) o Many areas in the US the government can do whatever they want, while in New Jersey, since the governments differ, public policy administration is more difficult  A second approach is through what Hancock refer as policy determinants o The relationship between public policies, characteristics of the democratic society and the international system  A third approach is to focus on the policy content, and idean that the nature of a policy problem and the solution (Finish) Introduction to the policy cycle  Agenda setting  Policy formulation  Decision making  Implement the policy  Policy evaluation o Policies are always changing o Not a linear course of action o Different actors involved in each step Merits of the Policy Cycle  It breaks down the complexity of the process into a number of stages and sub-stages so that each can be investigate separately or in relation to the others  It allows for numerous and complex cases to be analysed in a comparative manner and at each stage of the cycle o We know that is a logical manner at which stage a particular policy is, and then determine its success at that stage  It can be used at the local (agency), national (Government), and international (UN) level for policy analysis o It can also be used to determine what each jurisdiction is doing at any particular time  Since different stages can be studied separately, it can be used to determine where more resources/training is needed Demerits of the policy cycle  IT can be misunderstood to mean that policymakers use a very systematic, linear, and logical system all the time o In reality, the policy process is non-linear, sometimes impromptu and difficult to map out  It is a one-size fits all approach? Magical bullets are few and non-existent  There are no indications as to who and what drives the policy from what stage to the other and why. Different actors and factors play different roles for different reasons o For instance, what forces and drivers move a policy from adoption to implementation and why? o Citizens are actors, stakeholders, and players as well  As an analytical tool, it is very good, but not as an actual and practical tool o In short, there are usually no linear progression of the policy process and implied by the ideal model Is an improved model possible?  Instead of seeking a universalist approach, models and magical bullets, focus on policy sectors, the agency levels, fields or domains o For instance, most policies usually occu at the agency specific levels (health, education)  Different societal factors play a significant role and impact public policies o In a homogeneous society like Ghana, issues of multi-culturalism are non factos in the policy process o On the contrary in a society like Canada, these policies are paramount  Public policies involve multiple actors, with competing demands, needs, and resources o In the USA, lobbyists play a big role in policymaking using their financial and political power/clout  Context of the societal state, and international levels matters o The range of policy instruments available can enhance or restrain policymakers o Aid givers and takers create different power asymmetries Policy competencies  Policy Acumen consists of: o The accumulated knowledge and experience in the policy process, including understanding of the key players, their interests and resources o A broad understanding of policy practices in other countries and policy sectors to learn best practices  Healthcare in Canada vs the US  Gun control in Canada vs the US o Such an acumen is needed to develop a solid foundation for judgement about policy feasibility Analytical skills  The second major competency required for effective policy is analytical skills for diagnosing a situation and developing appropriate strategies  For instance, cost-benefit analysis enables policy makers to compare and contrast the cost and consequences of various options available  Stakeholder analysis and consultation is also a critical factor to policy success Managerial expertise  This refers to public managers capabilities to perform key policy functions that finally shape their ability to shape policy  Some of these policies include planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling  Managerial expertise is also very important in coordinating and direction the activities of multitude of actors who might be involved in policy formulation, implementation and other policy functions th Lecture 2: (Sept 13 ): Theories and models of public policy analysis  How to state public policy  And some of the theories used over the years are policy analysis o Tools, things needed for the job Approaches to public policy Analysis The Philosophical Approach  The philosophical approach concentrates on the values which the political system should set for itself o The philosophical approach is normative; it is based on values and norms o Looking at public policy with your values and norms and how it will impact them  Plate, represented bets the philosophical tradition of politics o He said that it was the duty of the philosopher-king to establish the ideal society based on justice  Also known as the traditional approach, involves the analytical study of ideas and doctrines which have long formed the core part off political though  This approach has been criticized on the ground that it cannot be scientific as it ignores objective reality The Positivist approach  At the root of the positivist approach to public policy is the application of welfare economic models to public problems  Welfare economics argue that individuals acting through the market and market mechanisms, should expect to make most social decision o The market is the most efficient mechanism for allocation society’s resources  But, markets do not always work properly and efficiently all the time, resulting in what can be referred to as Market Failure o “If private markets yield economically inefficient outcomes or socially inequitable outcomes, the government intervention was justified to remedy the situation”  Qualitative analysis Behaviouralism: A Positivist approach  Those who sought to make public policy analysis scientific argued that hypotheses could be verified on the basis of objective quantifiable data  It ignore the value or values and norms in the study of politics  They focused on the tangible aspects of political life to the neglect of value-laden perspectives  Their objective was to establish a discipline that was “scientific” and “objective” Types of market failure There are a few types of markets failures that have universal acceptability  Public goods and services (Tangible and intangible)  Pure Private goods and services  Natural monopolies  Imperfect information o Free information of quality  Tragedy of the commons o The depletion of public resources by individuals acting independently in their own self- interests Critics of Positivism  It does not reflect the reality if public policymaking and analysis on the ground  Real public policy making and evaluation is a political, not a technical decision  It is influenced by partisanships, norms, values and political ideologies of the ruling party not the efficiency and financial imperative  “The neglect of political variables by welfare economics has led to its critics to described it as a “myth, a theoretical illusion” that promotes “a false an naïve view of the policy process” The Post-Positivist Approach  Post-positivist are a loose collection of scholars united by their rejection and opposition to the positivist approaches  Post-positivist put a lot of emphasis and significance on ‘contextual socio-political factors’  They argue that welfare economics are wrong because of their fixation on quantitative analysis, objective separation of facts and values, generalised findings  Instead, they focus on subjective reflection, normative analysis and argumentation as more fruitful tools for understanding policy analysis Theories of public policy  In order to better understand public polices, it’s better to put it in context o National context, educational context  IT is for this reason that policy analysts put theories and models or understanding policymaking into two main categories o The individual and societal level  Simplistic theories in public policy assume that both policy actors and policy analysts are capable of a high degree of rationality that allows the to understand causal affets o Smoking will lead to cancer  More complex models on the other hand assume that either policy actors nor analysts are capable of much rationality, especially with regard to causation o Gun registration will not lead to lower gun violence on the streets Micro Level Models: The rational comprehensive theory  At its basics, it assumes that for any problem, there is a rational and logical alternative or solution, waiting to be discovered  Under this approach, when an individual decision maker is confronted with a problem o You carefully draw up ma list of goals, values, and objectives related to the problem o You rank them based on a hierarchy of them importance o Carefully examine and consider all the alternative for dealing with the problem  This should enable you to weigh the consequences of each alternative by considering the cost and benefits, merits and demerits of each o Finally, you settle on the alternative that will maximise your objectives and values  IT suggest that for every problem, a set of alternative solutions exits Criticisms of the rational model  IT becomes useless in times of crisis when speed is of the essence o 9/11, SARS, swine flu  Most problems facing decision makers are poorly defined o Youth employment, crime levels, poverty  It also assumes that policy makers have no resources and time constraints o Personnel, money, technology  Many of the alternatives are not value neutral, they are based on value judgements and ideological considerations o Ranking them is therefore not rational and objective th Lecture 3 (Sept 18 ): Class, Group, and Institutional Approaches to Policy Analysis  What motivates bureaucrats and public policymakers? Marxist Social Theory  The best known of the Marxist social theories is Karl Marx’s Manifesto of the Communist Part o The communist Manifesto o The platform of the Communist party (what is it you want to do?)  It sees the policy process as a class struggle between workers (labour) and the owners of capital o Largely based on ownership o The owners of property own those who do not own property and therefore sell their labour to the property owners  In this class theory, Marx argues that public policies are a reflection of the interest of the capitalist class o Power is not evenly distributed o The capitalist citizens (rich) have more power than the labourers  That means that public policies are made for the benefit of the privileged few in society Policies As the interest of the Bourgeoisies  He sees the state as an instrument in the hands of capitalist to be used for the purposes of maintaining the capitalist system and the interest of the bourgeoisies o To maintain the capitalist system o It is skewed towards the interest of the bourgeoisies o Occupy wall street making the same argument  With regard to public policy making I particular, Marxist see how particular policies serve the interest of capital, not ordinary citizens  For instance the bailing out of wall street and not main street in the current financial crisis  Tax cuts and loopholes for the wealthy o The rich get more from the state than the poor Criticisms of Marxist social theory There will come a time when labour will rise up and revolt against the capitalist in a revolution The communist manifesto was a cll for labour to rise up and overthrown the capitalist structure  First, even if it is true that public policy serves only the interest of capital, it cants be concluded ipso facto that a policy was enacted at the behest of capital o You can’t prove that capitalist sent instruction to policymakers to draft a policy in their interest  It can also explain why some policies are adopted despite open condemnation and opposition from capital o For instance tax hikes in France and Healthcare reform I the USA o Capital also hates some labour laws in most developed countries (Wal-mart)  Also, elections are not just capital are more potent and have resulted in more voter friendly policies than capitalist o Or instance, most social welfare programs in capitalist societies have become sacred policies that even capitalists cant change  When? When will the revolution happen to overthrow the capitalist society? Pluralism  Pluralism is based on a number of assumptions: o That the state is democratic – Power is dispersed and not monopolizes by the corporate elite o Individuals are free agents employing a variety of resources to organize that make demands of the system o Authorities make decisions that represent compromises brokered between competing interest groups– a sort of market place  Must understand these assumption  They are the foundation on which pluralist theory rests Who Govern? (Robert Dahl, 1961)  Main research question  “In a political system where nearly every adult may vote but where knowledge, wealth, social position, access to official and other resources are unequally distributed, who actually governs?” A questions of (in)Equality  At the core of pluralist theory is the question of equality of resources and its impact on public policy making  “If because they are unequal in other conditions of democracy are unequal in power to control their government, then who in fact governs?”  And “how does a democratic system work amid (in)equality of resources So, Who Governs?  “The answer is not the mass nor its leaders, but both”  The leaders usually cater to the interests of the masses after seeking their mandate to rule them  “They then turn to use this mandate to weaken and possible eradicate any opposition to their rule  Public policies in the democracy are the contested results of ordinary citizens, represented by interest groups and that there is an equal distribution of power Rebuttals and Objections  Pluralism does not address power asymmetric in society  “It is impossible to compare the importance of different decisions, so one can’t assume that they are equally important” (ibid)  If policies are the contested results, how come one group gets all they want, when they want it and how they want it while others don’t  Some interest groups are invited consulted, and given a prominent role in the policymaking process while others are peripheral Institutionalism  While public choice and pluralism focus on the individual and group analysis, institutionalism focuses on the role of institutional in policymaking  Why do institutions such as the government, churches, corporations, interest groups and universities exist at all?  Institutionalists seek to explain the full range of social behaviours and organizational activity behind policymaking  What role do institutions play in fashioning constraints and providing opportunities for policymakers? Neo-institutionalism  Neo-institutionalism seeks to identify o How rules, norms, and symbols affect political behavior o How configurations of government institutional affect what the state does o How unique patterns of historical development can constrain, subsequent choices about public problem solving  Institutions are not neutral arbiters in the public policymaking and evaluation process, they have a vested interest th Lecture 4: (Sept 25 ) – The Roles of Ideas, institutions, and Objectives  The role and impact of different political systems on public policymaking  The role of different domestic and international players in the policy process o NAFTA influences Canadian public policymaking  Who are Policy entrepreneurs in the policy process?  What roles do they place in the making and implementation of public policies?  Try to identify some policy entrepreneurs in canda o Who are they? What do they do? Can we identify them? Political systems and public policy making  Different political system play different roles and impact public policy making differently o Changing the governmental party every 4 years in America o The country’s values o The amount of parties in the system o Different jurisdiction for different governmental members (federations) o EX: Moving a whole village to create a highway for the 2008 Olympics  As such, they type of political systems, federal/unitary, affects the policy process differently  In a unitary government o “The existence of a clean chain of command or hierarchy linking the different levels of government together in a superordinate/subordinate relationship reduces the complexity of policymaking”  In countries like Ghana, Japan, UK, the central government retains power and authority over all policymaking but can delegate that authority through o Decentralization and Devolution Policymaking in a federal system  The presence of two existing autonomous levels of government is the main feature of public policymaking in a federal system o The struggles between provinces  In Canada, the USA, Nigeria, federalism has been cited as a major reason for their weak policy capacity o Obama care in the USA o Bokoharam/Sharia in Nigeria  Federalism makes public policymaking a long, drawn out, convoluted process that is also expensive and time consuming  Inter-governmental and jurisdictional turf wars contribute to weak policy capacity and federalism embodies both o The building of the Ottawa light-rail is a prime example of this, everybody had to be happy for the project to start Legislatures and Policymaking  Different types of legislatures also present challenges and opportunities to the policymaking process in different countries o Canada has two types of legislatures: Bicameral, Unicameral  Five main types of legislature can be identified: a. A clear separation of the Executive and the Legislature (USA) b. No separation between the legislature and the executive (UK and Canada) c. A hybrid system where some legislatures are part of the executive (Ghana) d. A bicameral system (upper/lower. Commons/senate). These are found in the UK, US, and Canada e. Unicameral system (just one house). (Ghana)  Must look at all the possible scenarios in picking a system of government Impact on policymaking  All things equal, policymaking is relatively harder in the 1 and 4 types o Where there is clear separation between executive and legislature o Where there is a bicameral legislature nd rd th  Also, policymaking is relatively easier in the 2 , 3 , and 5 types (especially with majority governments) o The government and legislature are the same o rdWith majothty, there can be no opposition  The 3 and the 5 represent the best routes to policymaking o Executive president that can veto policy o Can select his cabinet from the house o With an unicameral house and majority, the policymaking process becomes stronger Policy Entrepreneurs  Policy entrepreneurs are people who, from outside formal governmental positions, introduce, translate, and help implement new policies o Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook o Celebrities endorsing PETA o Most observers viewed the public entrepreneurs as central figured in the drama that is public policy making  Policy entrepreneurs can be individuals or organizations (NGOs) who specialize in identifying problems and finding solutions to them o They provide critical policy resources such as new ideas on issues and the technical support for solutions  In order to move their ideas and preferred solutions from the incubation to enactment they need allies  These entrepreneurs are important because sometimes the formal process can be very clogged  These policy entrepreneurs as individuals and organizations are willing to invest their resources in return for future policies in their favour (Kindgon, 1984) Who are Policy Entrepreneurs? Policy entrepreneurs:  Advocate new ideas, develop proposals, and identify best practices in the industry  Define and reframe problems in the public sphere, thereby bringing maximum publicity and public support to it  Use their numerous resources to specify policy alternatives and solutions to “wicked problems” and help set the decision-making agenda  Through collaboration, networking and teamwork, they are able to broker ideas among many policy actors Activities of Policy Entrepreneurs  New Idea generation and problem framing activities that public managers might be afraid to engage in  Because of their relative technological advantage, they are able to engage in policy dissemination, strategic planning, and project demonstration activities more effectively o For instance, marijuana legalization in the US  They are able to use their extensive networks to cultivate bureaucratic insiders, supporters and advocates for their preferred policies o Gender advocates are able to court support through these means  They can and are able to court high profile elite businesses, celebrities, religious/NGO groups to make their case o The movie and performance arts industry has been used effectively for these issues Lecture 5 (Oct 2 ): Fundamentals of Agenda Setting Outline  What is agenda setting?  What are some policy determinants  Some policy ideas and windows  Agenda setting styles What is Agenda-Setting?  In order to better understand Agenda-Setting, answers to the following questions are important o Why do some issues end up getting government attention while others do not? o Why do government feel the need to respond or act on some issues while ignoring others? o How come when some people, institutions, and actors speak, the government listens while it ignored other with similar concerns?  Therefore, agenda setting is about the recognition of a problem, issues, concern, and demand by the government (Howlett and Ramesh, 2003)  Problems are not objective, just sitting there waiting to be seen and recognised, Problem recognition is a socially constructed process o Either society or the government must recognize the problem, someone must bring it to attention Agenda setting patterns  There are three recognized models of agenda setting o Outside initiation model o Globalization model o Inside initiation model Outside initiation model is associated with liberal pluralist societies  Asserts that issues first arise in civil society and NGO groups and ae then expanded sufficiently to reach first the public agenda, and finally the government attention;  They key role under this model is played by social groups (MADD); and,  Pluralist for instance argue that public policies are the contested results of various actors and stakeholders in the society Mobilization and insider initiation models Mobilization is associated with totalitarian regimes  Issues are simply placed on the formal agenda by government with no necessary input from the public until a formal announcement is made  Issues are mostly the preferences of the rulers and a very few elite  The policy process under such a system is controlled, closed and monopolised Insider initiation model (associated with corporatist regimes)  Here, influential and powerful groups (lobbies) with access to policymakers initiated a poli
More Less

Related notes for PAP3350

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit