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Public Administration
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September 15 2009PAP 3350 Public PolicyWhat is public policyA course of actions or inactions chosen by public authorities to address a given problem or interrelated set of problems Action or inaction This notion of governance to recognize that there is a problem there and then deciding that there is no need for them to take actions there is scarce resources and they dont have enough money to go through with it the problem itself can resolve itself in the long run and therefore the govt will decide not to act upon it Public authorities Policy decisions are taken by taken by public authority are elected officials that are forming the govt of the day if minority govt then they can extend out to other parties public servants are not public servants they will advise but at the end of the day it rests with the Minister Problem Something is happening that requires govt intervention problems also come in bundles climate change values play a strong role in public policy it is based on values and preference based on the person so much of the decisions being taken are reflective off the govt of the day what they are trying to pursue is the public interestthere are going to be winners and losers some people are going to like the policy and some people not so muchThe general character of a public policy therefore is that it is a guide to action a plan a framework a course of action or inaction designed to deal with problems How is public policy different from Human resources policy Treasury Board No it is not it is only part of a division and not concerning the whole public it is not a PUBLIC policyThey are typically made by management public policy refers to policies that deal with public problems sPublic policy is whats going on out there Different from corporate policyFocusing on an individual corporation and not the PUBLIC At the end of the day they are there to make a profit How is it different from an election platformElection platform is no more than a document and when a govt comes into power they can chose for the action or inaction If I am elected I willElection platform are policy proposals until the govt comes into power and chose to take action or not Elements of policy contentPolicy statement Has three key elementsoFirst is the definition of the problemoSecond is the goals that are to be achievedoThird is the instruments or means whereby the problem is addressed and the goals achieved 1Problem definitionsRecognition definition appearance of problems in clusters causality Problem and casual factors In the case of climate change humans burning fossil fuels Problems usually come in clusters GoalsGeneral goals policyspecific oGeneral goals about health caremaintain and improve the health among Canadians oPolicyspecific improve services for atrisk youththese goals are more related to those youths safer pregnancies etc Unstated goals such as the national gun registry a waste of money for the govt and cost much more at the end InstrumentsMeans of addressing the problem and achieving the goalsMeans chosen on how to address the problem and achieve the policy goalsPolicy consistencyCoherence within and across policies1Internal consistency consistency in terms of policy content Consistency among the three elements of problem definition goals and instruments2Vertical consistency consistency between policies and programs3Horizontal consistency consistency across different policies 1 Policy APolicy B Problem cause3Objectives related to the causeInstruments supportive of the objective 2 Programs September 18 2009Other important conceptsPolicy fieldsTypes of policy categorized by problem area Categorize types of policies according to its problem Problem frameworkGuide to a range of related actions and decisions in a given policy field Guidelines rules regulations that fit together in a specific policy What is policy developmentThe process of shaping policy initiatives from problem recognition to implementation and evaluation Policy development cycle Problem recognition getting a sense of what the problem ispolicy design instruments objectives policy interestsimplement actionevaluation2What is policy analysisThe disciplined application of intellect to public problems It is multidisciplinary its not just a one way type of discipline it contains different disciplinary backgrounds Designed to critically assess and communicate information that is useful in understanding and improving policies Focuses on public policy outputs in terms of their problem definition goals and instruments Three implications 1Its a specific form of inquiry there are particular methods that go along that looks at various cycles of the content of the policy itself and also looking at the outcomes 2Not just anyone can do this 3There will be good and bad policy analysisyou can tell which policy is superior from another How is this different from political analysisSince you are looking at the public policy you want to make sure that it has the public interest in mind and not the political party in mind Political how it can effect a certain party or the govt of the day When it comes to the object being studied policy analysis we are looking at the policy but with political analysis it doesnt have to be a policy it focuses about politicsPolicy Analysis can include multidisciplines social environment Economic just focuses on the economic side of things How can you decide whats a good analysis and whats not good oIssues beyond a single disciplinary objectPolicy studies Its a broader project which will be studying the policy project the object is the policy as a concept itself The broad range of research literature that is relevant to the study of and reflection upon public policy The broad range of research literature that is relevant to the study of and reflection upon public policy Policy analysis A very applied exercise looking at particular areas Four main types of reasoning FormAnalyzes policy according toNormativeValues ethical principles Thinking of what should be informed by values ethical principles an ethical analysis not looking at the legal side of thingsLegalJurisdiction legislation the CharterLooking at policy from a jurisdiction side legislation what does this legislation say and do to what extent is the charter applied the measurement the govt can and cannot take LogicalInternal vertical horizontal consistencyPolicy consistency vertical and horizontal 3
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