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Sociology - Final Exam

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Sociology – Final Exam Deviance: Strain Theory Cultural Support Theory Control Theory Labelling Theory Two types of people Learn things that lead Absence of control, Told who we are: (careerists); you to deviant lifestyle merge two types of Executives/street (socialised) deviance. ie Charles Cooley gangs (behaviour I.e. Journalist Reason we don’t do it all “The Looking identical: seek power, interviewed why the time is the control of Glass Mirror” wealth, etc) prisoners kill person or parents, religion, wealth. the morals of Durkheim study: when motorcyclists most-likely to suicide? Moral Stratification: perceived distance from “normality”, i.e. lying (when someone is asking how you’re doing – fine), lying under oath = jail time, i.e. 2 Martha Stewart (insider trading; info on business deals... sell stock) vs. Car Thief... Both 5 months in jail, but treated differently Social Class and Social Structure Social structure means that there are things in the broader world and act like so (Rich/poor: some born into wealth/poverty or man has fewer obstacles to obtain wealth) 1. Society as a “sorter”/“categorizer”: determine who we are/powers we have, sorts regarding; gender, background, religion, wealth... etc. 2. Categories are involuntary: cannot choose what family you are born into, has to do with luck (health care Canada, abusive family, etc.) 3. Categories are “sticky”: they aren’t permanent, but tend to “stick” to tendencies because of a. Child poverty (unchanged despite economy increase) b. Problems enduring (uneven wealth between countries) c. Mechanisms that causes consequences (i.e. cheap soccer balls) d. Effect of structure: kids in development countries aren’t individually failing... Inequalities of Outcome vs. Structural Inequalities Outcome Structural Inevitable product of competitive Precedes inequality outcomes (more profound inequality) structure/institution/system (or game) I.e. Medical school is expensive, being tested in university I.e. Universities are competitive – for uniquely your “smarts”. structure is inevitable If you go up the “ladder” someone must go down. We look at inequality in two senses; moral lens and analytical lens Social Class relates to social inequalities Little to do with lifestyle  access to power and privileges, economy shapes peoples capacities 1 Def: refers to the structural conditions within society, about social position relative to power (of other people, not numbers) Social Structure: rules of the game – we do not create them, but must follow (involuntary)  sticky KARL MARX (Social Class) - Placed class at the absolute core (to explain the world) o Conflict theory: “lower” wouldn’t work for “upper” if they didn’t have to (can work without them, but they have violence to keep them in line) o Capitalist class (Bourgeoisie) against (conflict) Working class (proletariat)  want more wages vs. want more profit o Power unevenly distributed... Capitalism = concentrate power and follow these rules: “Exploitation” The “Means of The Problem of The “Reserve Army Production” “Alienation” Force” Workers never get the Means of creating Feeling of being Less jobs than surplus value of their value: capture its distanced from workers, makes them work. (Not the same conception I.e. Job you don’t like replaceable (keeps value) Need to enter a – act unlike yourself, mobilisation – low I.e. students pay more capitalist relationship have no choices wages) than profs make to survive ($) McDonald’s example! Do not get People who have access to the Wearing uniforms, Can be easily replaced full value of franchise own the means of repetitive task (no with younger, eager labour production = schedule workers craftsmanship) people Capitalism: - “an economic system that is based on competition, where each actor seeks to maximize their benefits in a free market”. Everyone is not on the same level – free market is not universal - Social class: two main social classes and a third smaller class  petty bourgeoisie o Inequalities are built into capitalism  Concentration of capital($): The actors with the most resources will always win because they can afford to compete with others (WalMart vs. ma/pa shop) o Structural inequalities: people fall into classes that will never go away (these categories are necessary for the whole system to work) i.e. child poverty MAX WEBER (Social Class) Argues that we have multiple classes: Professors, doctors, clergy, etc aren’t working class (because of economy status) We have multiple sources of power “Life Chances”: people born into different status/class have access to choice in order to do well 2 ERIK OLIN WRIGHT (Social Class) Understanding “middle class”  Workers with Divided Loyalties o I.e. they can be managers o Authority creates loyalty and make them feel as though they have some power  The “Great Deception” o If middle class decides not to work (they yield their income), but capitalist class can still exploit others for make money (leisure vs. consumption) o Capitalists have access to wealth/property i.e. investments  Social class as Privilege o Ability to do what they want, even if there’s a cost Why do we accept structural inequalities? Social Mobility: as long as there are two inequalities, people focus on the inequality of outcome instead of structural inequality Gender, Race & Ethnicity Race: creates categories that everyone understands, but the application is extremely difficult to hang on to those categories The Social Construction of Race:  Lineage/Family/Region (Bloodline, where you come from is makes you different from another)  Attention to Phenotype (Morphed into how you look)  “Scientific problem” (When pure things are mixed, creates confusion with classification) o Comparing race to elements (Cannot combine)  “Survival of the fittest” (Hebert Spencer) o Argues that northern European is the strongest/best bc the North is a hard place to live in Race is an imperfect descriptor (problem). Sociological terms: visible minority and ethnicity (refers to race or religion, but doesn’t have to) Importance of race: - Emile Durkheim: solidarity and “collective consciousness”, i.e. kids organise themselves according to ethnicity because they think they have something in common - Max Weber: “presumed identities” and “monopolistic closure”, categories are already made to identify who we are (predetermined) 3 The Vertical Mosaic – socio –ecomonic status (income and prestige of job) - Personal racism: the racism of the “grandmother in law”, prejudicial attitudes, slurs, jokes. - Systematic/institutional racism: when you put many people together
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