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SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM Chapter 1: A Sociological Compass Goals:  define sociology Sociology: the systematic study of human behaviour in social context. The sociological perspective analyzes the connection between personal troubles and social structures.  identify the social relations that surround you, permeate you and influence your behaviour Social relations have a great influence on suicide rates. Tend to focus on their state of mind rather than the state of society. (We don’t think about the social relations that encourage suicide) Emile Durkheim -proved that suicide is more than just ones act of desperation that results from a psychological disorder. He was able to show how social forces influenced suicide rates. The Case: examined the association between the rate of suicide and rates of psychological disorder among different groups. He found that psychological disorders occurred mostly when people reached adulthood BUT suicide rates  w. age Marriage reduces temptation to commit suicide due to social ties Social relations exist in micro- (face-to-face), macro- (impersonal), and global- (cross-country/culture) social structures. They influence human behaviour. Pop-Culture & Social Media -influence fashion, trends, how we interact w. one another  Describe how sociological research seeks to improve people’s lives and test ideas using scientific methods. Sociological research had been motivated by a desire to improve the social world—charting a better course for society. Scientific methods are used to  validity of results. SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM Sociological research begins with values. Values motivate sociologists to define which problems are worth studying and to make initial assumptions about how to explain sociological phenomena—explanations are theories. Research is the process of systematically observing social reality to test if a theory is valid. Sociological research uses scientific methods to evaluate idea but the desire to improve people’s lives often motivates the research.  summarize the main schools of sociological theory Theoretical Main Level Main Focus Main Image of Tradition of Analysis Question Ideal Society Functionalis Macro Values How do the A state of m institutions equillibrium of society contribute to social stability Conflict Macro Class How do The Theory inequality privileged elimination groups of privilege seek to — maintain Especially their class advantages privilege and subordinate groups seek to increase their, often causing social change in the process? Symbolic Micro Meaning How do Respect for Theory individuals the validity communica of minority te so as to views SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM make their social settings meaningful ? Feminist Micro & Patriarchy Which The Theory Macro social elimination structures of gender and inequality interaction processes maintain male dominance and female subordinati on?  appreciate how sociology emerged out of the scientific, democratic, and industrial revolutions Origins of the Sociological Imagination Sociological Imagination: quality of mind that enables a person to see the connection between personal troubles and social structures. 1. The Scientific Revolution (~1550 in Europe) o Encouraged the idea that we should base conclusions about the workings of society on solid evidence rather than speculation. o People tend to link scientific revolution w. specific ideas Scientists prosed new theories about the structure of the universe and developed new methods to collect evidence so they could test those theories.  Newton’s laws of motion  Copernicus’s theory that earth revolves around the sun, but in 1609, Galileo and his telescope confirmed Copernicus’s observations. o Using evidence to make a case for a POV. SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM 2. The Democratic Revolution (~1750) o Suggested that people are responsible for organizing society o Human intervention can help solve social problems. 3. The Industrial Revolution (~1780) o Most important event in world history due to the development of agriculture and cities. o Created problems that attracted social thinkers o Refers to the rapid economic transformation that began in Britain in the 1780s. o Involved large scale application of science and technology to industrial processes, the creation of factories, and the formation of a working class.  Understand the main challenges facing society today. Sociology can help you come into grips w. you century, The Post-industrial Revolution is the technology-driven shift from manufacturing to service industries. Globalization is the process by which formerly separate economies, states, and cultures become tied together and people become increasingly aware of their growing interdependence. The causes and consequences of post-industrial and globalization form the great sociological puzzles of our time. The tensions between equality and inequality of opportunity, and between freedom and constraint, are among the chief interests of society today CHAPTER 4 & 5 SOCIAL INTERACTIONS POST CHILDHOOD LIFE STAGES Stage 1: Achieving Independence  A transition from lives centered psychologically and economically on parents to live in which we stand on our own.  This stage challenges us to disengage from parents and take responsibility for ourselves *sometimes this stage doesn’t end because you don’t want to create problem in family Major transitions associated with this stage:  Leaving the family home  Finishing school  Entering workforce  Developing committed relationship  Getting married SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM  Becoming financially independent Stage 2: Balancing Family & Work Commitments  The central challenge of this stage is to establish oneself as a stable worker, partner, spouse and parent  During this stage: -Men tend to become increasingly caught up in their careers -Many women become increasingly committed to their families Stage 3: Performing Adult Roles  In this stage, people try to meet high standards for performance in the adult roles to which they are committed  Common sources of stress at this stage: -the awareness that one is aging -physical illness -the death of parents of close friends Stage 4: Coping with Loss  Central Challenge is to cope with a series of loses: -loss of occupational role through retirement -loss of significant relationships through death -eventually loss of health, energy and independence Impact of social events on the person Life stage when event is Focus of impact of event experienced Childhood Values & attitudes Adolescence, young adulthood Identities, opportunities Adulthood Behavior, opportunities Later adulthood New life choices, revised identity Understanding the Self The self is the individual viewed as both the source and the object of reflexive behaviour. Its active (initiates reflexive behavior) and passive (object toward whom reflexive behavior is directed). The active aspect of the self is the I, and the object of self-action is the me. The Nature and Genesis of Self The self is the source of action when we plan, observe, and control our own behavior. The self is the object of action when we think about who we are. SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM Mead: Action and Internal Dialogue Mead portrays action s guided by an internal dialogue. -People engage in conversations in their minds as they regulate their behavior. (ex. burping at home and not in public) -They use words and images to symbolize their ideas about themselves, others, their actions, and others’ responses to them. (Schema) *words & images have power (i.e. school names on shirts, brands, logo) There are 3 capacities human beings must acquire in order to engage in action: 1. Ability to differentiate themselves from other persons. 2. See themselves and their own actions as if through others’ eyes. 3. Use a symbol system or language from inner thought. Generalized Other A conception of attitudes and expectations held in common by the members of the groups. When we imagine what the groups expects of us, we are taking the role of the generalized other. We are also concerned with the generalized other when we wonder what people would say or what society’s standards demand. Ex. What’s expected of you—in hockey you keep the puck away from your net Cooley: Looking-Glass Self The most important looking glasses for children are their parents and family and, later, their playmates. -These are a child’s significant others—those whose reflected views have greatest influence on the child’s self-concepts *these could be parents, friends Play and the Game Mead identified 2 stages of social experience leading to the emergence of the self in children. -In the play stage. Children imitate activities of people around them SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM -In the game stage, children enter organized activities such as games of house, school, and team sports * imitating people Role-taking The process of imaginatively occupying the position of another person and viewing the self and the situation from their perspective. Through it, a child learns to respond reflexively. One of the earliest signs of role-taking is the correct use of the pronouns “You” and “I”. Dramaturgical Sociology From an interactionist perspective, individuals have the ability to choose how to act, above-and-beyond their inclinations The study of how we present ourselves, playing roles and managing impressions during interactions with other people, is called dramaturgical sociology. Dramaturgical sociology is most closely associated with Erving Goffman (1922-1982) Goffman and Impression Management Goffman believed that we use information from others’ presentations to help establish expectations of our behavior and that of the people around us. Impression management refers to the ways individuals seek to control the impressions they convey to other people, however, there are impressions given and impressions given off—the impression you believe that you are giving and the impression the other person has of you. Example: 1. Trying to order for your date but you think it’s the gentleman thing to do, but she is stunned because she didn’t get to choose. 2. Resting bitch face Motivations behind Impression Management Goffman argued that we are driven to maintain positive impressions, probably because outcomes of interactions serve as a source of self-esteem. Supporting others’ impressions is important because we may need support in our own impression management efforts later in interaction Example: being a wingman SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM Regions of Impression Formation There are two regions of impression formation that affect how we interact with people: 1. Front stage: the place where we present ourselves to others 2. Backstage: the region where we relax our impression management efforts and we may practice our performances People regularly move in and out of these regions Example: prepping for a date, interview CHAPTER 7 DEVIANCE Why do deviant things increase during examinations? Example: sex in the library uOttawa, have sex because they are feeling stressed or feel like giving up. DEVIANCE  Deviance, a violation of cultural, societal norm, Hence to deviate from the norm!  Deviance can be viewed as absolute or as relative to the group being studied o Example: Killing in war, life support, self-defence  Societies divide deviance into more or less serious forms, representing mores and folkways. o Things that are right and rude; saying “build that wall” , “smoke a bowl” (don’t do it in church, in class).  Things that were deviant before are not so deviant now. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISM  If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. (W.I. Thomas, 1928:572) o What words did you use in high school to put others down? Rachet, Slut (promiscuous) Labeling Theory  Frank Tannenbaum (1938) Crime and Community  Dramatization of evil in regards to youth Edwin Lemert (1951) Social Pathology  Primary Deviation-rule breaking  Secondary Deviation-Agreement with societies reaction o Abnormal to stutter, stigmatized and then labelled and then agree with the label MORAL CAREERS AND DEVIANT SUBCULTURES SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM In his famous work, Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance, Howard Becker (1973) elaborated the processes through which:  Primary deviance leads to secondary deviance  The importance of deviant subcultures in maintaining the deviant self-image Outsiders refer to people labeled as deviants who accept the deviant labels BECKER’S STAGES OF BECOMING AN OUTSIDER Becker (1973) described a three-stage process by which individuals become outsiders:  An individual commits a deviant act (primary deviance)  The person begins to accept the deviant status (secondary deviance)  The deviant joins a deviant subculture Master status.  Basis of personal identity  Self-Fulfilling Prophecy o We all take on different roles, and it is often given to you by the people around you (i.e. mom, dad, student) o Given label you believe you are “cheater”, example lets say you’re dating someone and you have to console them that guy is “just a friend” but when you break up you go towards that guy that was “just a friend” and then your now ex-boyfriends says “I knew you were a cheater” or slut shamming , pimp, daddy, man whore, o “fuckboi” males tend to embrace it STIGMA AND DEVIANCE Deviance can take many forms Evering Goffman (1963) defined stigma as “an attribute that is deeply discrediting” Stigma can take 3 forms:  A physical deformity  Being part of an undesirable social group o Newfoundland jokes  A character flaw o Friend that has no filter, asshole, overly critical, listening to Justin Beiber Canadian culture is based on regionism THE CAREER OF THE MENTAL PATIENT Evrin Goffman (1961) studied the ways that mentally-ill patients managed stigma in asylums He described mental institutions as total institutions, places where individuals are required to isolate themselves from the rest of society SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM The goal of the asylum is to force the patient to adjust her senses of self Goffman found that individuals with stigma try to cover-up their deviance by passing, ways that people try to make themselves look like “normal” people, and covering ways of concealing their problems from people o Coming out w. sexual orientation o Hiding the fact that you’re bipolar from partner o Hiding where you’re from o Teen pregnancies *we want to conceal ourselves to look normal and to fit in. ETHNOMETHODOLOGY AND DEVIANCE in yellow because it gets people agitated as in the slide its different colour from other subtitles **** SOCIAL CONVENTION Ethnomethodology emphasizes how individuals construct and defend their views of social reality The meaning of a given behaviour may be defined as deviant to one person but not to another person through the process of reflexivity A product of this interaction process is the documentary interpretation of actions Harold Garfinkel – Breaching Experiments o Make the boyfriend feel dominant as guys are fragile, so she answered the question wrong so her boyfriend could give the right answer and feel smart o Want to get behind social meaning o Social convention dicates that we have pretend that we are okay because “we don’t want to hear your issues” DURKHEIM’S THEORY OF ANOMIE Society of Saints If we were to have a society of people who do good, we’d still have deviance Humans are egoistic.  Society needs social control to regulate their wants and behaviours Anomie  A condition of normlessness o not waking up w. the rooster  Results from rapid social change, e.g., industrialization o having to learn to cook after living on years on a meal plan *Anomie is not just suicide, mass wars, the internet (feeling depressed bc of what others have that you don’t) Rapid Change SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM  Creates anomie. Increases deviance MERTON’S TYPOLOGY OF ADAPTATION TO ANOMIE RESPONSE CULTURAL GOALS LEGITIMATE MEANS Conformity ACCEPT ACCEPT Innovation ACCEPT REJECT Ritualism e.g. Senior REJECT ACCEPT Professors Retreatism REJECT REJECT e.g Drug addicts Rebellion REJECT & REPLACE REJECT & REPLACE e.g. Left-wing subculture We have certain cultural goals (married, kids, based on capitalism—keep economy moving) but what are your legitimate means? – work confirm Innovation – drug dealers (want a big house but do bad things) Ritualist reject cultural goals because “I don’t need a brand new purse every season, or a vacation” Retreatist : drug users, alcoholics Cultural goals for Merton’s only works for westernized HIRSCHI’S SOCIAL BOND (1969)  Walked into school districts and said “who are the good kids” and interviewed them about why don’t they commit deviant acts  Asked: o Attachment to community? o Commitment to community? o Involvement in community? What you do after school o Belief? DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION Criminal attitudes and skills are learned:  Through interaction – talked about downloading movies, learning to roll a joint  With significant others. –friends, family (them teaching you not to declare tips at work Criminal learning includes skills and motives. Significant others give definitions that are favourable or unfavourable to law- breaking. Too many definitions favourable to breaking the law results in deviance.  Talked about getting liquor under the table or having someone buy it for you SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM Associations vary in priority, frequency, duration and intensity. Criminal behaviour is learned just like non-criminal behaviour.  Talked about going from smoking one joint to more than one, to meeting the supplier, to becoming one, to becoming a dealer; as you enter various subcultures there is always another layer (i.e. going deeper and deeper with 50 Shades of Grey, or from learning to roll a joint, to using a pipe, to bong) Criminal behaviour results from general needs and values, not special needs and values Research shows that: Deviant friends are particularly important in illegal drug behaviours. Recently cultivated friendships are more important in deviant behaviours. THE ASCH CONFORMITY PARADIGM Chapter 8: Social Stratification Goals:  Identify & measure trends in economic inequality in Canada  Compare the contribution of different types of capital to economic achievement  Analyze the key characteristics of poverty in Canada  Contrast Marxist, Weberian, and functionalist explanations of stratification  Distinguish how different classes view the class system Patterns of Social Inequality Social Stratification: refers to the way in which society is organized in layers/strata  Ex. Titanic shows the shipwreck-and-inequality theme SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM  Ex. 1975 Italian Movie, Swept Away—rich girl and poor boy become equal when on desert island; have sex; when found go back to their class roles o Sends 3 messages that: 1. Possible to be rich w/o working hard (inherit wealth) 2. People can work hard w/o becoming rich 3. Structure of society causes inequality, inequality disappears only on island—absence of society Economic Inequality in Canada  Canada is one of the world’s most prosperous countries.  The average CND family ears 20x more than it did in 1951  # of earners increase as women enter the labour force.  Avg. worker earns more because we are more skilled and use more sophisticated technology How to measure income inequality Income quintile share: sociologists use it to measure/observe income inequality and its change over time Gini coefficient: reports the proportion of total income that would have to be redistributed for perfect equality to exist. *compares actual income distribution in a population to perfect equality o Coefficients vary from 0-1.0 o Shows that income inequality has increased substantially in recent decades o USA has the highest level of income inequality of any wealthy country. Economic Inequality in Canada  The job a person holds, plays a large role in what section they’re in for the income distribution o Ex. Sydney Crosby, Drake, Steve Nash, Ryan Gosling, James Cameron earn high salaries based on their natural talent*effort is essential o Human capital: is the sum of useful skills and knowledge that an individual possesses  Investment in education & training = bigger pay o Social capital: refers to the networks or connections that individuals possess.  More likely to succeed when they have strong bonds of trust, cooperation, mutual respect, and obligation w. well-positioned individ/families. SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM  Knowing the right people helps w. finding opportunities. o Cultural capital: is the stock of knowledge, tastes, and habits that legitimate the maintenance of status and power.  Compromise peoples social skills: ability to impress others  Social capital shares the idea that families higher in the social hierarchy enjoy more capital of all types. *level of education is a critical factor for finding well-paying, stable employment CAN GOV’T INFLUENCE INEQUALITY 1. Economic forces operate to produce important differences in the amount of inequality 2. Gov’t policies vary considerably in the amount they reduce inequality. 3. As a result of interaction between economic and political forces, societies end up with a range of levels of inequality Income versus Wealth Wealth inequality in Canada is even more severe than income inequality. While the incomes of the richest quintile are about 3x that of the middle quintile, their wealth is about 7x greater. *modest correlation exists between income and wealth. Some wealthy people have low annual incomes, and some people with high annual incomes have little accumulated wealth. :. Annual income may not be the best measure of a person’s wealth. Income and Poverty  Homelessness has increased (200,000 use shelters—is a manifestation of poverty  Poor families have inadequate resources for acquiring the basic necessities of life.  Canada doesn’t have an official definition of poverty.  Low-income cut off: Statistics Canada term for the income threshold below which a family devotes at least 20% more of its income to necessities of food, shelter, and clothing than does an average family Myths about the Poor Myth 1: People are poor because they don’t want to work. SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM  Ignores that many people can’t work because of disability or because they must care for their young children.  Many people in poverty work full-time/part and there is also low minimum wage Myth 2: Most who live in poverty are immigrants  Once they are established have lower poverty rates than people born in Canada CHAPTER 9 GLOBALIZATION THE BURGERS AND FIRES GO GLOBAL  actual burgers and fries are an American invention Globalization: a social, economic, and political process that makes it easier for people, goods, ideas, and capital to travel around the world at an unprecedented pace SIDE NOTE IN LECTURE: We look at the world in a global format Gives the example of Justin Bieber hair cut being a social trend Has given rise to time-space compression. o Diminished importance of geography and time lags. o Internet has facilitated the creation of virtual communities that allow people to communicate across borders w/o ever meeting face-to-face *look at table of 20.1 World Internet Users and Population *Africa, Middle East, Asia and internet use…digital divide  Despite the rapid pace of time-space compression access to the means of communication that facilitates globalization is unequal. o Not all people and ideas have access to channels of globalization like the internet or even the telephone o Inequality of access is known as the digital divide *refers to Table 20.1 SIDE NOTE IN LECTURE: The reason why we can survive scurvy compared to our Canadian ancestors is because we can import and export  While globalization is neither inherently good nor bad, it does create conditions that affect human lives and the environment. SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM SIDE NOTE IN LECTURE: mentioned the North and South Poles are getting warmer w. industrialization  Ethical debates surrounding global capitalism have become more pronounced in recent years. o Social media has enabled activists to mobilize support in their protests o Arab Spring, 2011; Occupy Wall Street Movement, 2011 Top-down Globalization -Involves the actions of groups promoting globalized capitalism and free trade.  Has been dominated by the neoliberal economic policies -Privatization of state resources, dismantling of the welfare state; reduction in state regulation; faith in the power of the market; profit motive in creating wealth. SIDE NOTE: Maternity leave, OSAP, 30% off tuition, Health Care, unemployment insurance, pension…”the state does a lot for you” Because we go into lots of debt we used the political philosophy that liberalism says, “keep the sate out of the individual’s life” and how are we going to that? By cutting down social services…teachers strike, nurses from Canada move to the US, modern example is uOttawa library getting cut Walkerton having unclean water in their area because we privatize and un- rule regulation  Is strongly associated with the United States due to its role in promoting neoliberal policies domestically and internationally. *this idea sat really well with the US Globalization from below (bottom-up) -Describes actions of groups that criticize injustices that result from globalization processes. -Not an absolute rejection of globalization (e.g., supports global labour standards) SIDE NOTE: talks about going to other countries and have factories there do our work for cheap—child labour, Joe Fresh, pay them $5.00 vs $10.00, Black Friday deals—goes to show how over-priced things are because the can be made for cheap and/or marked down—We are a part of the problem SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM  Advocate for more democracy, environmental protection, and social justice in the global system  Reject neoliberal forms of globalization  Should be understood as a broad framework that encompasses multiple perspectives, including:  Moderate critiques of neoliberalism  Radical ant-capitalist positions  Various forms of anarchism  Armed peasant uprisings  Fair trade coffee projects CAPITALISTS GO GLOBAL  In a globalized economy, “financial capital” (money used for investment, currency trading, etc.) has grown much faster than production and trade.*it’s about moving dollars  Rise of financial capital dubbed “casino capitalism since speculators— like casino gamblers—can make or lose millions of dollars in short periods.  Facilitated since 1980s by financial deregulation.  Tends to destabilize financial systems SIDE NOTE: “When you buy a stock, you bet that the stock will go up just like how you bet in sports games: coin toss. Players, scores, overtime”—there’s a lot of speculation and that’s where the term casino gambler was “coined”.  Growth of casino capitalism is linked to declining profits and global corporations producing more than the world’s consumers can afford to purchase.  Example: Apple products stop updating after a certain model, making them “unuseful”.  Concern that excess capacity accompanied by poverty (that constrains consumption) may lead to global recession.  To survive overcapacity and ruthless competition, corporations have centralized, diversified and become more “leaner and meaner.”  Example: Best Buy expanding their market now selling cookware, toys  Corporations have become bigger and more powerful than many national governments.  Corporate taxation has declined across all developed countries in response to threats to relocate production to more favourable locations SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM  Forces governments to rely on taxes paid by less mobile individuals and small businesses  Canadian corporations justify big tax breaks by their need to compete with the United States.  Canada’s own corporate tax rate was reduced from 50% in the early 1980s to just 26.5% in 2014  Reductions in corporate taxes reduced the Canadian gov’t federal revenues an estimated $13 billion in 2012-3.  Before the mid-90’s, Canada’s tax-benefit system was able to offset 70% of income inequality  This number has fallen to less than 40%  Responses by bottom-up globalizers to the growth of global corporations:  The 90’s emergence of the ant-sweatshop movement in North America  International bestseller, No Logo by Naomi Klein in 2000 “By rejecting brand names you support the idea of no logo/ sweatshops”  Critical attention being given to corporate tax avoidance practice “Walmart is one of the biggest employers”  Corporate responses to criticism include joining corporate movement for “corporate social responsibility” and aggressive promoting themselves as “good citizens.” SIDE ISSUE: What’s the issue when shopping? Is money the issue? Quality? Brand? **No one is saying or taking in if its slave-labour free  Critics of neoliberal policies question the extent to which states (the main instrument of democratic governance are being rep
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