SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
Chapter 1: A Sociological Compass
Sociology: the systematic study of human behaviour in social
context. The sociological perspective analyzes the connection
between personal troubles and social structures.
identify the social relations that surround you, permeate you
and influence your behaviour
Social relations have a great influence on suicide rates.
Tend to focus on their state of mind rather than the state of society.
(We don’t think about the social relations that encourage suicide)
-proved that suicide is more than just ones act of desperation that results
from a psychological disorder. He was able to show how social forces
influenced suicide rates.
The Case: examined the association between the rate of suicide and rates
of psychological disorder among different groups. He found that
psychological disorders occurred mostly when people reached adulthood
BUT suicide rates w. age Marriage reduces temptation to commit
suicide due to social ties
Social relations exist in micro- (face-to-face), macro- (impersonal), and
global- (cross-country/culture) social structures. They influence human
Pop-Culture & Social Media
-influence fashion, trends, how we interact w. one another
Describe how sociological research seeks to improve people’s
lives and test ideas using scientific methods.
Sociological research had been motivated by a desire to improve the social
world—charting a better course for society.
Scientific methods are used to validity of results. SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
Sociological research begins with values. Values motivate sociologists to
define which problems are worth studying and to make initial assumptions
about how to explain sociological phenomena—explanations are theories.
Research is the process of systematically observing social reality to test if a
theory is valid.
Sociological research uses scientific methods to evaluate idea but the desire
to improve people’s lives often motivates the research.
summarize the main schools of sociological theory
Theoretical Main Level Main Focus Main Image of
Tradition of Analysis Question Ideal
Functionalis Macro Values How do the A state of
m institutions equillibrium
Conflict Macro Class How do The
Theory inequality privileged elimination
groups of privilege
seek to —
Symbolic Micro Meaning How do Respect for
Theory individuals the validity
communica of minority
te so as to views SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
Feminist Micro & Patriarchy Which The
Theory Macro social elimination
structures of gender
appreciate how sociology emerged out of the scientific,
democratic, and industrial revolutions
Origins of the Sociological Imagination
Sociological Imagination: quality of mind that enables a person to
see the connection between personal troubles and social structures.
1. The Scientific Revolution (~1550 in Europe)
o Encouraged the idea that we should base conclusions about
the workings of society on solid evidence rather than
o People tend to link scientific revolution w. specific ideas
Scientists prosed new theories about the structure of the
universe and developed new methods to collect evidence so
they could test those theories.
Newton’s laws of motion
Copernicus’s theory that earth revolves around the
sun, but in 1609, Galileo and his telescope confirmed
o Using evidence to make a case for a POV. SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
2. The Democratic Revolution (~1750)
o Suggested that people are responsible for organizing society
o Human intervention can help solve social problems.
3. The Industrial Revolution (~1780)
o Most important event in world history due to the
development of agriculture and cities.
o Created problems that attracted social thinkers
o Refers to the rapid economic transformation that began in
Britain in the 1780s.
o Involved large scale application of science and technology to
industrial processes, the creation of factories, and the
formation of a working class.
Understand the main challenges facing society today.
Sociology can help you come into grips w. you century,
The Post-industrial Revolution is the technology-driven shift from
manufacturing to service industries. Globalization is the process by which
formerly separate economies, states, and cultures become tied together and
people become increasingly aware of their growing interdependence. The
causes and consequences of post-industrial and globalization form the great
sociological puzzles of our time. The tensions between equality and
inequality of opportunity, and between freedom and constraint, are among
the chief interests of society today
CHAPTER 4 & 5 SOCIAL INTERACTIONS
POST CHILDHOOD LIFE STAGES
Stage 1: Achieving Independence
A transition from lives centered psychologically and economically on
parents to live in which we stand on our own.
This stage challenges us to disengage from parents and take
responsibility for ourselves
*sometimes this stage doesn’t end because you don’t want to create
problem in family
Major transitions associated with this stage:
Leaving the family home
Developing committed relationship
Getting married SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
Becoming financially independent
Stage 2: Balancing Family & Work Commitments
The central challenge of this stage is to establish oneself as a stable
worker, partner, spouse and parent
During this stage:
-Men tend to become increasingly caught up in their careers
-Many women become increasingly committed to their families
Stage 3: Performing Adult Roles
In this stage, people try to meet high standards for performance in the
adult roles to which they are committed
Common sources of stress at this stage:
-the awareness that one is aging
-the death of parents of close friends
Stage 4: Coping with Loss
Central Challenge is to cope with a series of loses:
-loss of occupational role through retirement
-loss of significant relationships through death
-eventually loss of health, energy and independence
Impact of social events on the person
Life stage when event is Focus of impact of event
Childhood Values & attitudes
Adolescence, young adulthood Identities, opportunities
Adulthood Behavior, opportunities
Later adulthood New life choices, revised identity
Understanding the Self
The self is the individual viewed as both the source and the object of
reflexive behaviour. Its active (initiates reflexive behavior) and passive
(object toward whom reflexive behavior is directed).
The active aspect of the self is the I, and the object of self-action is the me.
The Nature and Genesis of Self
The self is the source of action when we plan, observe, and control our own
The self is the object of action when we think about who we are. SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
Mead: Action and Internal Dialogue
Mead portrays action s guided by an internal dialogue.
-People engage in conversations in their minds as they regulate their
behavior. (ex. burping at home and not in public)
-They use words and images to symbolize their ideas about themselves,
others, their actions, and others’ responses to them. (Schema) *words &
images have power (i.e. school names on shirts, brands, logo)
There are 3 capacities human beings must acquire in order to
engage in action:
1. Ability to differentiate themselves from other persons.
2. See themselves and their own actions as if through others’ eyes.
3. Use a symbol system or language from inner thought.
A conception of attitudes and expectations held in common by the members
of the groups.
When we imagine what the groups expects of us, we are taking the role of
the generalized other.
We are also concerned with the generalized other when we wonder what
people would say or what society’s standards demand.
Ex. What’s expected of you—in hockey you keep the puck away from
Cooley: Looking-Glass Self
The most important looking glasses for children are their parents and family
and, later, their playmates.
-These are a child’s significant others—those whose reflected views have
greatest influence on the child’s self-concepts *these could be parents,
Play and the Game
Mead identified 2 stages of social experience leading to the emergence of
the self in children.
-In the play stage. Children imitate activities of people around them SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
-In the game stage, children enter organized activities such as games of
house, school, and team sports * imitating people
The process of imaginatively occupying the position of another person and
viewing the self and the situation from their perspective.
Through it, a child learns to respond reflexively.
One of the earliest signs of role-taking is the correct use of the pronouns
“You” and “I”.
From an interactionist perspective, individuals have the ability to choose how
to act, above-and-beyond their inclinations
The study of how we present ourselves, playing roles and managing
impressions during interactions with other people, is called dramaturgical
Dramaturgical sociology is most closely associated with Erving Goffman
Goffman and Impression Management
Goffman believed that we use information from others’ presentations to help
establish expectations of our behavior and that of the people around us.
Impression management refers to the ways individuals seek to control the
impressions they convey to other people, however, there are impressions
given and impressions given off—the impression you believe that
you are giving and the impression the other person has of you.
1. Trying to order for your date but you think it’s the gentleman
thing to do, but she is stunned because she didn’t get to
2. Resting bitch face
Motivations behind Impression Management
Goffman argued that we are driven to maintain positive impressions,
probably because outcomes of interactions serve as a source of self-esteem.
Supporting others’ impressions is important because we may need support in
our own impression management efforts later in interaction
Example: being a wingman SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
Regions of Impression Formation
There are two regions of impression formation that affect how we interact
1. Front stage: the place where we present ourselves to others
2. Backstage: the region where we relax our impression management
efforts and we may practice our performances
People regularly move in and out of these regions
Example: prepping for a date, interview
CHAPTER 7 DEVIANCE
Why do deviant things increase during examinations?
Example: sex in the library uOttawa, have sex because they are feeling stressed or
feel like giving up.
Deviance, a violation of cultural, societal norm, Hence to deviate from the
Deviance can be viewed as absolute or as relative to the group being studied
o Example: Killing in war, life support, self-defence
Societies divide deviance into more or less serious forms, representing mores
o Things that are right and rude; saying “build that wall” , “smoke a
bowl” (don’t do it in church, in class).
Things that were deviant before are not so deviant now.
If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. (W.I.
o What words did you use in high school to put others down? Rachet,
Frank Tannenbaum (1938) Crime and Community
Dramatization of evil in regards to youth
Edwin Lemert (1951) Social Pathology
Primary Deviation-rule breaking
Secondary Deviation-Agreement with societies reaction
o Abnormal to stutter, stigmatized and then labelled and then agree with
MORAL CAREERS AND DEVIANT SUBCULTURES SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
In his famous work, Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance, Howard Becker
(1973) elaborated the processes through which:
Primary deviance leads to secondary deviance
The importance of deviant subcultures in maintaining the deviant self-image
Outsiders refer to people labeled as deviants who accept the deviant labels
BECKER’S STAGES OF BECOMING AN OUTSIDER
Becker (1973) described a three-stage process by which individuals
An individual commits a deviant act (primary deviance)
The person begins to accept the deviant status (secondary deviance)
The deviant joins a deviant subculture
Basis of personal identity
o We all take on different roles, and it is often given to you by the people
around you (i.e. mom, dad, student)
o Given label you believe you are “cheater”, example lets say you’re
dating someone and you have to console them that guy is “just a
friend” but when you break up you go towards that guy that was “just
a friend” and then your now ex-boyfriends says “I knew you were a
cheater” or slut shamming , pimp, daddy, man whore,
o “fuckboi” males tend to embrace it
STIGMA AND DEVIANCE
Deviance can take many forms
Evering Goffman (1963) defined stigma as “an attribute that is deeply discrediting”
Stigma can take 3 forms:
A physical deformity
Being part of an undesirable social group
o Newfoundland jokes
A character flaw
o Friend that has no filter, asshole, overly critical, listening to Justin Beiber
Canadian culture is based on regionism
THE CAREER OF THE MENTAL PATIENT
Evrin Goffman (1961) studied the ways that mentally-ill patients managed stigma in
He described mental institutions as total institutions, places where individuals are
required to isolate themselves from the rest of society SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
The goal of the asylum is to force the patient to adjust her senses of self
Goffman found that individuals with stigma try to cover-up their deviance by
passing, ways that people try to make themselves look like “normal” people, and
covering ways of concealing their problems from people
o Coming out w. sexual orientation
o Hiding the fact that you’re bipolar from partner
o Hiding where you’re from
o Teen pregnancies
*we want to conceal ourselves to look normal and to fit in.
ETHNOMETHODOLOGY AND DEVIANCE in yellow because it gets people
agitated as in the slide its different colour from other subtitles **** SOCIAL
Ethnomethodology emphasizes how individuals construct and defend their views of
The meaning of a given behaviour may be defined as deviant to one person but not
to another person through the process of reflexivity
A product of this interaction process is the documentary interpretation of actions
Harold Garfinkel – Breaching Experiments
o Make the boyfriend feel dominant as guys are fragile, so she answered the
question wrong so her boyfriend could give the right answer and feel smart
o Want to get behind social meaning
o Social convention dicates that we have pretend that we are okay because
“we don’t want to hear your issues”
DURKHEIM’S THEORY OF ANOMIE
Society of Saints
If we were to have a society of people who do good, we’d still have deviance
Humans are egoistic.
Society needs social control to regulate their wants and behaviours
A condition of normlessness
o not waking up w. the rooster
Results from rapid social change, e.g., industrialization
o having to learn to cook after living on years on a meal plan
*Anomie is not just suicide, mass wars, the internet (feeling depressed bc of what
others have that you don’t)
Rapid Change SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
Creates anomie. Increases deviance
MERTON’S TYPOLOGY OF ADAPTATION TO ANOMIE
RESPONSE CULTURAL GOALS LEGITIMATE MEANS
Conformity ACCEPT ACCEPT
Innovation ACCEPT REJECT
Ritualism e.g. Senior REJECT ACCEPT
Retreatism REJECT REJECT
e.g Drug addicts
Rebellion REJECT & REPLACE REJECT & REPLACE
e.g. Left-wing subculture
We have certain cultural goals (married, kids, based on capitalism—keep economy
moving) but what are your legitimate means? – work confirm
Innovation – drug dealers (want a big house but do bad things)
Ritualist reject cultural goals because “I don’t need a brand new purse every
season, or a vacation”
Retreatist : drug users, alcoholics
Cultural goals for Merton’s only works for westernized
HIRSCHI’S SOCIAL BOND (1969)
Walked into school districts and said “who are the good kids” and interviewed
them about why don’t they commit deviant acts
o Attachment to community?
o Commitment to community?
o Involvement in community? What you do after school
Criminal attitudes and skills are learned:
Through interaction – talked about downloading movies, learning to roll a joint
With significant others. –friends, family (them teaching you not to declare tips at
Criminal learning includes skills and motives.
Significant others give definitions that are favourable or unfavourable to law-
breaking. Too many definitions favourable to breaking the law results in deviance.
Talked about getting liquor under the table or having someone buy it for you SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
Associations vary in priority, frequency, duration and intensity. Criminal behaviour is
learned just like non-criminal behaviour.
Talked about going from smoking one joint to more than one, to meeting the
supplier, to becoming one, to becoming a dealer; as you enter various
subcultures there is always another layer (i.e. going deeper and deeper with
50 Shades of Grey, or from learning to roll a joint, to using a pipe, to bong)
Criminal behaviour results from general needs and values, not special needs and
Research shows that:
Deviant friends are particularly important in illegal drug behaviours.
Recently cultivated friendships are more important in deviant behaviours.
THE ASCH CONFORMITY PARADIGM
Chapter 8: Social
different types of capital to economic achievement
Analyze the key characteristics of poverty in Canada
Contrast Marxist, Weberian, and functionalist explanations of
Distinguish how different classes view the class system
Patterns of Social Inequality
Social Stratification: refers to the way in which society is organized in
Ex. Titanic shows the shipwreck-and-inequality theme SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
Ex. 1975 Italian Movie, Swept Away—rich girl and poor boy become
equal when on desert island; have sex; when found go back to their
o Sends 3 messages that:
1. Possible to be rich w/o working hard (inherit wealth)
2. People can work hard w/o becoming rich
3. Structure of society causes inequality, inequality
disappears only on island—absence of society
Economic Inequality in Canada
Canada is one of the world’s most prosperous countries.
The average CND family ears 20x more than it did in 1951
# of earners increase as women enter the labour force.
Avg. worker earns more because we are more skilled and use more
How to measure income inequality
Income quintile share: sociologists use it to measure/observe
income inequality and its change over time
Gini coefficient: reports the proportion of total income that would
have to be redistributed for perfect equality to exist. *compares actual
income distribution in a population to perfect equality
o Coefficients vary from 0-1.0
o Shows that income inequality has increased substantially
in recent decades
o USA has the highest level of income inequality of any wealthy
Economic Inequality in Canada
The job a person holds, plays a large role in what section they’re in for
the income distribution
o Ex. Sydney Crosby, Drake, Steve Nash, Ryan Gosling, James
Cameron earn high salaries based on their natural talent*effort is
o Human capital: is the sum of useful skills and knowledge that
an individual possesses
Investment in education & training = bigger pay
o Social capital: refers to the networks or connections that
More likely to succeed when they have strong bonds
of trust, cooperation, mutual respect, and obligation w.
well-positioned individ/families. SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
Knowing the right people helps w. finding
o Cultural capital: is the stock of knowledge, tastes, and habits
that legitimate the maintenance of status and power.
Compromise peoples social skills: ability to impress
Social capital shares the idea that families higher in
the social hierarchy enjoy more capital of all types.
*level of education is a critical factor for finding well-paying, stable
CAN GOV’T INFLUENCE INEQUALITY
1. Economic forces operate to produce important differences in the
amount of inequality
2. Gov’t policies vary considerably in the amount they reduce inequality.
3. As a result of interaction between economic and political forces,
societies end up with a range of levels of inequality
Income versus Wealth
Wealth inequality in Canada is even more severe than income inequality.
While the incomes of the richest quintile are about 3x that of the middle
quintile, their wealth is about 7x greater.
*modest correlation exists between income and wealth. Some wealthy
people have low annual incomes, and some people with high annual incomes
have little accumulated wealth. :. Annual income may not be the best
measure of a person’s wealth.
Income and Poverty
Homelessness has increased (200,000 use shelters—is a
manifestation of poverty
Poor families have inadequate resources for acquiring the basic
necessities of life.
Canada doesn’t have an official definition of poverty.
Low-income cut off: Statistics Canada term for the income threshold
below which a family devotes at least 20% more of its income to
necessities of food, shelter, and clothing than does an average family
Myths about the Poor
Myth 1: People are poor because they don’t want to work. SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
Ignores that many people can’t work because of disability or because
they must care for their young children.
Many people in poverty work full-time/part and there is also low
Myth 2: Most who live in poverty are immigrants
Once they are established have lower poverty rates than people born
CHAPTER 9 GLOBALIZATION
THE BURGERS AND FIRES GO GLOBAL
actual burgers and fries are an American invention
Globalization: a social, economic, and political process that makes it easier
for people, goods, ideas, and capital to travel around the world at an
SIDE NOTE IN LECTURE:
We look at the world in a global format
Gives the example of Justin Bieber hair cut being a social trend
Has given rise to time-space compression.
o Diminished importance of geography and time lags.
o Internet has facilitated the creation of virtual communities
that allow people to communicate across borders w/o ever
*look at table of 20.1 World Internet Users and Population
*Africa, Middle East, Asia and internet use…digital divide
Despite the rapid pace of time-space compression access to the means
of communication that facilitates globalization is unequal.
o Not all people and ideas have access to channels of globalization
like the internet or even the telephone
o Inequality of access is known as the digital divide *refers to
SIDE NOTE IN LECTURE: The reason why we can survive scurvy compared to
our Canadian ancestors is because we can import and export
While globalization is neither inherently good nor bad, it does create
conditions that affect human lives and the environment. SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
SIDE NOTE IN LECTURE: mentioned the North and South Poles are getting
warmer w. industrialization
Ethical debates surrounding global capitalism have become more
pronounced in recent years.
o Social media has enabled activists to mobilize support in their
o Arab Spring, 2011; Occupy Wall Street Movement, 2011
-Involves the actions of groups promoting globalized capitalism and free
Has been dominated by the neoliberal economic policies
-Privatization of state resources, dismantling of the welfare state;
reduction in state regulation; faith in the power of the market; profit
motive in creating wealth.
Maternity leave, OSAP, 30% off tuition, Health Care, unemployment
insurance, pension…”the state does a lot for you”
Because we go into lots of debt we used the political philosophy that
liberalism says, “keep the sate out of the individual’s life” and how are we
going to that? By cutting down social services…teachers strike, nurses from
Canada move to the US, modern example is uOttawa library getting cut
Walkerton having unclean water in their area because we privatize and un-
Is strongly associated with the United States due to its role in
promoting neoliberal policies domestically and internationally. *this
idea sat really well with the US
Globalization from below (bottom-up)
-Describes actions of groups that criticize injustices that result from
-Not an absolute rejection of globalization (e.g., supports global labour
SIDE NOTE: talks about going to other countries and have factories there do
our work for cheap—child labour, Joe Fresh, pay them $5.00 vs $10.00, Black
Friday deals—goes to show how over-priced things are because the can be
made for cheap and/or marked down—We are a part of the problem SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
Advocate for more democracy, environmental protection, and social
justice in the global system
Reject neoliberal forms of globalization
Should be understood as a broad framework that encompasses
multiple perspectives, including:
Moderate critiques of neoliberalism
Radical ant-capitalist positions
Various forms of anarchism
Armed peasant uprisings
Fair trade coffee projects
CAPITALISTS GO GLOBAL
In a globalized economy, “financial capital” (money used for
investment, currency trading, etc.) has grown much faster than
production and trade.*it’s about moving dollars
Rise of financial capital dubbed “casino capitalism since speculators—
like casino gamblers—can make or lose millions of dollars in short
Facilitated since 1980s by financial deregulation.
Tends to destabilize financial systems
SIDE NOTE: “When you buy a stock, you bet that the stock will go up just like
how you bet in sports games: coin toss. Players, scores, overtime”—there’s a
lot of speculation and that’s where the term casino gambler was “coined”.
Growth of casino capitalism is linked to declining profits and global
corporations producing more than the world’s consumers can afford to
Example: Apple products stop updating after a certain model,
making them “unuseful”.
Concern that excess capacity accompanied by poverty (that constrains
consumption) may lead to global recession.
To survive overcapacity and ruthless competition, corporations
have centralized, diversified and become more “leaner and
Example: Best Buy expanding their market now selling
Corporations have become bigger and more powerful than many
Corporate taxation has declined across all developed countries in
response to threats to relocate production to more favourable locations SOC1101 B COURSE REVIEW FOR EXAM
Forces governments to rely on taxes paid by less mobile
individuals and small businesses
Canadian corporations justify big tax breaks by their need to compete
with the United States.
Canada’s own corporate tax rate was reduced from 50% in the
early 1980s to just 26.5% in 2014
Reductions in corporate taxes reduced the Canadian gov’t
federal revenues an estimated $13 billion in 2012-3.
Before the mid-90’s, Canada’s tax-benefit system was able to offset
70% of income inequality
This number has fallen to less than 40%
Responses by bottom-up globalizers to the growth of global
The 90’s emergence of the ant-sweatshop movement in North
International bestseller, No Logo by Naomi Klein in 2000
“By rejecting brand names you support the idea of no logo/
Critical attention being given to corporate tax avoidance practice
“Walmart is one of the biggest employers”
Corporate responses to criticism include joining corporate movement
for “corporate social responsibility” and aggressive promoting
themselves as “good citizens.”
SIDE ISSUE: What’s the issue when shopping? Is money the issue?
Quality? Brand? **No one is saying or taking in if its slave-labour free
Critics of neoliberal policies question the extent to which states (the
main instrument of democratic governance are being rep