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Soc 1101 G.docx

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University of Ottawa

Introduction to SociologyCharacteristics of a ScienceA central problemA set of conceptsA collection of factsResearch methodsTheoretical knowledgeAbout SociologyComte defined sociology as The study of the laws of social dynamicsThe study of the laws of social staticsUnnatural motion not in the natural motion of an object throws an object off a steady stateNatural motion returns something to a steady stateKnowledge comes from GodHeliocentric ended by the Theory of GravityWhy the interest in social change and social stabilitySociology can be understood as an intellectual response to1The Scientific RevolutionaBegins in Great Britain spreads to France2The Industrial RevolutionaRadically changes the economic structure of societybMost of what was manufactured was produced by peasant family in their housecBrought the idea of factorydThe factory owner decided how long you worked what days you worked3 The French RevolutionaBegins in 1789 led by the bankers wanted removal of all control of whatever you owned No state restrictions get rid of thembCapitalists would become the powers of Francec Separation of Church and State Cathedral is changed into museumdKing and God become the Holy AllianceeRussians Germans and English allied to fight against FrancefFrance organized its army in a democratic basis soldiers elect their own sergeants etcThus the rise of NapoleongNapoleon marches across Europe and takes over MoscowhAuguste Comte was born right after the French RevolutionRedefining the sociological problemsAs more observations were made sociologists rejected the idea that these were natural laws of societyA consequence of this was a redefinition of the sociological problemSociology today is best understood as the study of cultureDefinition of cultureSocially constructedConsists of material and nonmaterial factsReligion is nonmaterialComplexLearned and sharedHistorical and cumulativeVaries from place to placeCulture is thought to be a mode of adaptation to an environmentSociology and Anthropology are closely related field of studyoAnthropologists tend to other culturesoSociologists tend to study their own culturesin our case Western cultureSociology today is defined as the study of cultureMore specifically sociologists investigateoThe making of culture the agency perspectiveoHow culture shapes behaviour the social structure perspectiveCulture and human natureoSociologists argue that much of the behaviour that is attributed to human nature is in fact socially determinedCompetitiveness is not human nature it is socially influencedoThe comparative method is used to distinguish socially determined behaviour from biological based natureThe cross culture comparisonIf the behaviour is constant across all cultures it is biologic natureIf the behaviour varies across cultures it is strong evidence that the behaviour is culturally conditionedAll humans share the same biologyThe historical comparisonPeople simply do actions because we have been conditioned to do itMost of what we think is biological routed is not really human natureoComte argued that the chief method for sociology is the comparative methodComparing speciesComparing culturesComparing the society at different parts in timeWestern CultureA synthesis ofWestern modernGermanicMediterranianMediterranianIndianMesopotanianPersianEgyptian
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