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Exam Review.odt

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University of Ottawa

Aboriginal Social MovementsPast injustices and current socio economic concernsDecimation of precontact populationLand divestment forced assimilation and abuse inresidential schools chronic unemployment and poverty Overrepresentation within the criminal justice system and police brutalityPost World War 2 era was a period dominated by anticolonial discourseReturning Aboriginal service men were demanding equal treatment and assumed political advocacy rolesInternational emphasis on human rightsCritical eventsAboriginal protests were restricted to the community or local level single issue protests Few formal organizations dealing with Aboriginal issues on a national level emerged in the periodNational Indian Council formed in early 1960s later dissolved due to divergent interests and was succeeded by the National Indian Brotherhood representing status Indians only1969 White paper on Indian policyThe roots of contemporary Aboriginal protest in Canada can be traced back to protest against this paper That year the federal government drafted a White Paper entitled The Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian PolicyThe purpose of the legislationRepeal the Indian Act in place since 1876 Do away with the Department of Indian Affairs and to do away with the special status of status Indians in Canada in the hopes of improving the economic position of Native people by turning them into ordinary Canadians Aboriginals engaged in an unprecedented series of protests and demonstrations Eventually the bill was pulled from the political agenda The bills demise marked the beginning of a new era of Aboriginal political mobilizationThe response of Aboriginals to the bill changed the Aboriginal movement structure significantlyFederal government policy of funding Aboriginal organizations1971Led to formation of many organizations but government introduced stringent criteria prioritizing those organizations that claimed to represent all Aboriginals and those that were urban basedEmergence of Aboriginal elite who were not in touch with reservebased AboriginalsAn increased focus on national not local issuesBureaucratization of the movementLand Litigation and radical protests eg riot outside parliament in 1974 became common From 1970s onwards Aboriginals experienced more political openness more courts willing to hear land claims a seat on the constitution act committee Meech Lake accord processMuch of the opening came as a result of protests at political opportunities closing 1969 White paper on the Indian Act Meech Lake AccordMore media prominence key to shaping the message of movementPlan to repatriate the Canadian constitution also resulted in crossCanada mobilization Initial plans and drafts of the constitution began in 1978 almost entirely ignored the rights of Aboriginal peoples In 1981 when lobbying failed to garner the changes they sought Aboriginal organizations organized a series of protests including the occupation of the Vancouver Museum of Anthropology and an Edmonton demonstration attended by 5000 peopleThough Aboriginals failed to halt the repatriation in 1982 the new constitution did include several sections dealing specifically with Aboriginal rights
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