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2106 final notes.docx

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1ThirdJANUARY 69Paradigmrefers to a set of ideas assumption used to interpretEssentialist paradigmcertain acts are thought to be objectively deviantthe focus unit of analysis is the individual the body and or mindthe remedy lays in treatment of the individualVariationsDemonicacts that are contrary to the laws of God are inherently wrongthe individual succumbs to evil through temptation or possession Remedy discipline or evil from the bodyNaturalisticDeviance is defined as acting in a way that is contrary to human natureThe implication is that there is something abnormal with the mind or body of the individualRemedy training the body andor confinementCultural paradigmDeviance is relative to a people there are no absolute or universal features that define devianceThe focus is on the socialcultural context of the actincluding the perceptions and interpretation of othersRemedy is interpreted as being an exercise of powerExamples of naturalistic type theories2Cesare Lombroso 18361909Argued that criminals had the genes were throwbacks of an earlier less civilized race of humansThe StudyA physical comparison of a non random sample of convicted criminals and a non random sample of soldiersHe identified a tell tale set of physical traitsEg projecting eye ridges protruding jaw asymmetrical cranium ears that stand out unusual wrinkling of skin long arms diminished sensitivity to pain etc43 of prisoners had 5 or more traits while none of the soldiers had that manyConcluded that these people derived from an early race of deviant humans However their characteristics were due reactions from lifestyle within the prisonCharles Davenport 18661944Observed that criminality runs in familiesSpeculated that evolutionary human populations adopted two different survival strategiesHuntergathererGardeningHuntergathering societies selected individuals who were cooperative noncompetitive sharing and monogamousGardening societies selected individuals who were competitive selfish and violentIndividuals today who have more of the gens of the gardener are inclined towards violence and criminal behaviourToday the theory is critiqued because researchers have found that both of these societies can be violentPatricia Jacobs isolated the XYY chromosome in 1961A comparative sample of infants and maximum security male patients in a Scottish hospital for the criminally insane found elevated rates among the inmates015 of infants300 of inmates3Thirdin 1969 the XYY syndrome was accepted as mitigating evidence in a French murder caseSubsequently a review by the USA National Institute of Mental Health founda general rate of 015 005 more rare than Jacobs had thoughtElevated rates among maximumsecurity prisoners but no link with violencemany of the men were locked up for nonviolent crimesMen were taller than averageMen had lower IQs than averageHistorical variations in definitions of deviance the case of pedophiliaFrom M Fouclault The History of SexualityGreek men did not recognize any principle difference between sexual attraction to women and to boysWhat was emphasized was ones natural appetite for beautyBut a moral distinction was made between the moderate selfpossessed man and one given to pleasureWhat was important was devotionThe moral principles governing sexual relations between men and boysA non slave boy was free to accept or rejectThe mature man was expected to show his love give gifts and servicesThe loved boy was not to yield too easilyThe mature man should give up relations with overaged boysboys who are experiencing pubertyCrossCultural variations in definitions of devianceFrom Skouron Scott and RaoHow offenses are Perceived in the United States India and KuwaitMethod respondents were asked to rank in order the seriousness of 37 offensesExamples
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