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Final Review Sociology.doc

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University of Ottawa

Final ReviewSocial psychologists interested in studying how and why our thoughts feelings and behaviors are shaped by the social environmentSocial psychology is the scientific study of the way that peoples thoughts feelings and actions are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other ppl Sociology is the scientific study of human society and social psychologists study the relationship between individuals and groupPsychology is the scientific study of the individual and his behaviors Psychologists study individual behavior and social stimuli Sociology is divided into 2 Macrosociology and microsociologyThe term sociology was coined by August Comte in 1838 George herbert Mead and William Thomasfounders of school of social psych in ChicagoThere are 3 perspectives in sociological social psychology 1 Symbolic interactionism2 Social structure and personality3 Group processesThe sociological imagination ability to see our personal lives in the context of history culture where we live It helps us see the impact society has on us Society exists in the norms values statuses roles and groups we belong to These things guide our actions with other people around us Social norms Behavior guidelines regulate our behavior in relationshipsValues Deeply held ideals and beliefs Status A persons position in a group or in society Role Expectations about how to behave in a status Culture A societys unique patterns of behavior and beliefsPeople make most of their decisions in groups organizations and institutions Organization Group that shares a common purpose and contain a formal set of rules Social theories are organized sets of propositions about how various elements of social life are related to one another Theories have 3 components 1 General statements about social relationships 2 Statements about the causes of those relationships3 General predictions based on these reasons about how people willreact to certain events or experiences or conditionsHypotheses Specific statement about how variables will relate to one another in a research studyVariables Independent and dependent concepts put into a measurable form This process is called operationalizing Probability sample Random sample designed to represent the larger population Nonprobability sample Use the sample you can get better than nothing ex snowball samplesIRB for all universities Internal Review Board 2 major research paradigms Qualitativefocus on indepth modes of observations and Quantitativeattempt to quantify ppls thoughts feelings and behaviorsQualitative Field research Direct observation of ppls behaviors at a particular site like ethnographies and participant observationIndepth interview Unstructured or semistructured series of questions Content analysis Systematic review of written documents or other media Focus groups semistructured interviews with small groups usually between 615 ppl Quantitative Main advantage is the ability to assess statistical significancethe probability that the results obtained reflect the population of interest 2 popular quantitative methods are survey research and experimentsIndices and scales are a series of related questions designed to develop one or more dimensions of a concept Laboratory experiments Conducted in controlled environmentsNatural or field experiments Those that take place in ppls everyday environment Theory Set of interrelated propositions that organizes and explains observed phenomena
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