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test 2 readings.docx

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University of Ottawa
Louise Edmonds

Koggel 18-36 =18 Singer 178-192 =14 Singer 1-12 ; 46-55 ; 178-191 = 34 Robert proctor Nazi reading Lynn Sacco – denial of incest in US Girls at risk = 14 Social science contribute to ethics – recommended Eric Gregory: religion and bioethics Laura M Purdy: Assisted Reproduction, prenatal testing and sex selection Amy Harmon: IN NEW TESTS FOR FETAL DEFECTS AGONZING CHOICES FOR PARENTS : - Nobody talks about it ---support group, tell family it was miscarriage - Pple change their opinion on it once it affects them personally – make an exception - Risk of aborting for any reason and pple have diff levels to measure what is acceptable and not according to their values, situation and circumstances - Often put values aside and religion too and are affected by personal emotions Susan Sherwin: The importance of ontology for feminist policy making in the realm of reproductive technology: - Shift from liberal individualism to feminist understanding of persons as rational beings - Feminists concern about the industrialization of reproductive and genetic technologies - Her aim: show that development of appropriate policies in this area will require adoption - +9of feminist relational understandings of personhood – respect to autonomy and justice and move away from ontology - Most liberal individualists theories treat justice as fair distribution of benefits and burdens in a society – justice= quantifiable - Liberal theories treat autonomy and justice as central - 24 Policy debates in Western democracies tend to center around two world views of human reproduction and genetics (reprogenetics):  religious commitments to the sanctity of human life as it occurs natural  & liberalism’s commitment to the fundamental political value of personal freedom - As reproductive and genetic services move steadily closer to a consumer model we are also increasingly hearing arguments structured around the (il)legitimacy of restricting corporate and consumer activities for social purposes (the state usually should intervene to the extent necessary to ensure safety – but do they have the power and authority to intervene in the private exchanges of the marketplace - Most public debates talk about liberal individualism, freedom and personal choice Robert Proctor: Nazi science and Nazi medical ethics: some myths and misconceptions: - Nazi science was not science at all (no medicine to speak of) - 4 groups made the myths:  Germans who stayed in Germany—blocked historical investigators to avoid embarrassing collaborations myth of suppressed science served as a way for post war scientists to distance themselves from their Nazi past  Jewish scholars forced from Germany: did not want to believe that the system had treated them so shoddily that they stopped producing good science – fields where there were most migrants  American military authorities: flawed science served as a disguise that US Nazi talent for military projects in USA – 1600 German scientist came to US (operation Paperclip)  Myths served to reassure American public that Nazi era could never happen in a liberal democracy – Nazi science being a pseudo science (science out of control vs. American science being genuine, secure within democratic institutions, obedient to law) - Germany had very advanced science and technology – highest peak – Nazi had good scientific knowledge - Ethics to their science: some cruel or explicit and sometimes not – but not alien or out worldly - Nazi support for science and medicine – help understand the appeal of Nazism in German intellectual culture - Public health protection were extended to the ―healthy‖ majority but ―enemies of the pple‖ were first excluded then exterminated – the individual didn’t suffer but rather particular kinds of individuals – not good of the pple higher than individual - Medicine in public health reforms that brought the majority of cleaner air and water, but other health reforms involving sterilization and later wholesale murder. - Tobacco being a major cause of lung cancer : medical consensus during Nazi period first – strong anti-tobacco movement – seen as laziness and polluting the body - Animal testing proved tar as cause of cancer (putting rats in a ―gas chamber‖ and they suffocates) - Muller experiment conclude: tobacco not just an important cause but that the extraordinary rise in tobacco use was the single most important cause of the rising incidence of lung cancer in recent decades – German study - Nazi germany was home to the world’s foremost tobacco cancer epidemiology, world’s strongest cancer prevention policy and world’s first recognition that asbestos could cause cancer - Hitlers interest and the interest of several of his underlings& at one point even attributed the rise of German Fascism to his quitting smoking could be caused by the triumph of Nazism - Nazism promote and hindered research - Anti tobacco papers were not independent from the Nazi ideology – the anti- tobacco program was motivate by Nazi ideal of bodily purity and racial hygiene—paranoaia - Pple believed that tiny corrosive poisons were infiltrating the German body, sapping its strength, causing harm – understanding that makes us see why Nazi medical ideologues could argue that lead, mercury, asbestos, Jews and tobacco tars were all a menace to the German body. - No sharp boundary between science and politics - Nazi state was supposed to be a hygienic state ; Nazism be ―applied biology‖—seductive power of socialism promising to cleanse German society form Jews, pollutants in air and water, homosexuality, burden of the mentally ill, sicknesses that could be traced – ―false humanitarianism‖ - Doctors were not victims but co-conspirators seduced by power of being offered and orderly hygienic state - Pple think that ethics were abandoned in this time and there were no limits to their science – but the truth is that they did have courses on medical ethics, discussions I society about obligations of physicians to society, state and sometimes individuals - Nazi medical philo were critical of neutral science for its own sake – - Science supposed to serve healthy Euro productive white pple and the German pple – therefore they had ethics - Never has been systematic study of medical ethics under the Nazis - 1900s the Germans fought to have voluntary consent and prevent medical experiments who had to be authorized by the director of the institution involved - 1931- strengthen medical experiments sanctions banning exp on the dying and under 18if it’s risky—1933law against animal cruelty - Culture of complaint in Nazi period (when something went wrong they didn’t just standby) - Ethics were typically sexist and racist; stressed on punctuality, cleanliness, orderliness, obedience to legal authority esp Hitler.—eliminate everything seen as ugly and a burden - Pple who were subject to experimental violence were seen as less than fully human according to the Nazi scale of values—ethics of not doing it on healthy pple (jews and Gypsies considered diseased raced, Russian POWs (prisoners of war) deserving enslavement/extermination unproductive handicap) - Some of the worst Nazi research cant even be considered misconduct according to definitions because most doctors did not lie, cheat, misrepresent their credentials (did not falsify or fabricate data to an unusual degree, little evidence of plagiarism) – misconduct never says being abusive, racist or sexist - Failure of physicians to challenge Nazi value – conforming, doctors should have broken convention, defended their patients against the law and not be indifferent - Pnt of author is to stress complexity and subtlety of the medical successes - Species protection but murdered handicap (ex of good and bad) – horror that such an advanced society fell into such large barbarism - Routine practice of science is not incompatible with the routine exercise of cruelty – white in black and black in white Lynn Sacco: Denial of Incest in USA: - Respectable families (white, middle- and upper class American men) and their daughters had gonorrhea and didn’t understand why, they thought it was an epidemic - Doctors refused to consider the possibility of incest – by 1940 medical textbooks relied on untested speculation to declare that most girls acquired gonorrhea from nonsexual contacts with other females or contaminated objects (ex: toilet seats) - The medical researchers estimated it only happened in lower class African American families for incest. Even though they found evidence of the increasing number of girls with gonorrhea - Between 1890 and 1940 nearly everyone who wrote about gonorrhea ignored the possibility of incest even though they couldn’t prove nor agree on what was the other possible cause – could be a sign of incest throughout American history - 1970s and 80s is when signs of incest were discussed when medical practionners were influenced by the second wave feminism with a diff view - 1981: Judith Lewis Herman: reconceptualised incest from a personal pathology to a mainstream gender issue: ―Female children are regularly subjected to sexual a
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