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Soc 3308rdReading journal 23JanthJan 11 What is workWork is an activity that transforms natureUndertaken in social situationsWhat counts as work is dependent on social circumstancesWe define what we think is work in a particular social contextActivities are interpreted Definitions of work are symbols of cultureThese things us a great deal about the kind of society we inhabitThe way we interpret it Difference between work and non workSeldom lies with the activity itself and more generally with the social context that supports the activity Experiences derive their meaning and significance in the context of social interpretationsOrientation of workRefers to the way in which workers order their wants and expectations relative to their employmentThree typesoInstrumental orientation to employment work is a means to an endoBureaucratic worker employment is a service to organization eg Public servantsoSolidaristic work is seen as a group activity and means involvement in the firm Eg some types of doctors nongovernmental workersAttitudes to work is not stable They change as individuals change their statusK MarxSelf realization through workUltimate aim of society is to be productivistIt is capitalism that inverted the world of work and turned it against the workers He believed that people want to work that where their drive isAdam SmithWork was a necessary evil individuals have to have some incentive to give up leisurePpl need incentives to workAndre Gorzcontemporary French sociologistSelf realization does not occur within conventional work but is associated with hobbies or leisureSuggest that we need to go in and out of workBelieve that the govt should subsidize this avid flowUnpaid workRefers to as domestic labourHouseworkUnpaid activates outside of housework including house maintenance etcGender Employment opportunities for women have be historically been restricted to domestic like activities cleaning working caring teachingCritically engage with this ideaUnemploymentMarks out the conventional boundary between work and nonworkContingent WorkManagement has used redundancy to slim down the workforce and remould it into a malleable resourceSaying they are malleable means that they are vulnerable and insecure CLASSICAL APPROCHES TO WORKMARX WEBER DURKHEIM Marx EngelsConcerned with social fragmentation disintegration and conflictEngels was more interested in the household conceptHow is the experience of work breaking society apartHe realized capitalism as the fragmentation of societyAlienationCapitalism leads to alienation
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