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Prof S ChambersSOC 33092014 winter semester Twelve 12 of the following thirteen questions will appear on the midterm exam You must do eight 8 of twelve choices for the midterm 1 According to mile Durkheim how does the concept of the totem explain the communal function of religion 4 pointsLinks the individual to societygives identity and set of norms that are to be followed Binds citizens to a common set of principles and acts as a way of protecting this identity from outsider beliefs the profaneThe totem is the symbol of divinityThe totem acts as a placeholder for majority normative assumptions2 According to Peter Berger explain how the concept of the sacred or divine is constructed using the following processes externalization objectivation and internalizationExternalization we want to know the origin of creation and thus create theoretical possibilities for the cause These theories about a divine figure as the creator are our externalized creations These theories eventually take on form and structure However it is necessary to never forget where these ideas originated from who created themin order to understand the metaphysical realmObjectivation occurs when we start to think that our creations are separate entities from us The creation becomes something that is out there that is separate from usand we begin to believe it is real and dont question its origin These products become Reality This happens because humans forget the source of the creations and once they are objectified they are hard to forget Internalization is when the individual identifies with this Reality and allows himself to be directed by it The reality of the divine now becomes logic and society enforces it and can compel its followers to arrange their lives in a way to conform to this logic It is used as a way for social control to bring people back to the norm 3 According to Charles Taylor A Secular Age A What are three 3 forms of secularity that help to distinguish a religious society from a secular one oA secular society implies the falling off of religious belief and practice People are no longer attending church churches are closing no funding for religious schools and etc oIn a secular society the belief in God is challenged and faith in God is an option among many We now tolerate a variety of belief systems which makes secularization linked to postmodernism Religion no longer has veto power over systems of thoughtB What has been the result of this shift to a secular age oThe place of fulfillment has moved within human life from outside human life Any concept of the absolute or divine has been emptied from the equation of ethics We now help each other because we want to relieve suffering
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