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Social Networks Final.docx

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University of Ottawa

Social Networks Final Plenary lecture 12Remarks on Social Capital oDiffusion of innovationsTwo actors share the same understanding of costs and benefits shared attitudes of an innovation when they socialize with each otherShared understanding of costs and benefits shared attitudes leads to similar behaviourIf an alter adopts the innovation then the ego will follow soonThe less indirect and the stronger the relationship between the ego and the alter the more likely the social influences take placeThe stronger the relationship with the alter the more likely that the adoption of alter will trigger the adoption of ego Summary Social Networks oSocial networks are characterized by distinct structural featuresPeople tend to form locally dense clusters with only a few connections between these clusters weak linksLinks between clusters tend to be unstable limiting the diffusion of behaviours over large parts of the networksPeople that are connected in social networks tend to be similar and there is evidence that behaviour spread through social networks although homophily also explains an important part of these similaritiesThe fact that behaviour spreads over networks and that people tend to form clusters with likeminded individuals contradicts the one person one vote accounting as the decision to vote from one person can transform into a cascade of participationThe mechanism through which communities of individuals become stable tends to depend on the size of the group Small groups survive longer when they keep their members whereas large groups survive by expanding theirsDense social networks are a form of social capital that individuals can use to perform actions that they cannot do only by themselvesSocial capital allows complex transactions to take place in absence of complex regulatory frameworksSocial capital allows people to get access to informationSocial capital allows common sets of rules and norms to emergeIts appropriable There is debate on whether new online technologies have moved society into more impoverished states regarding social capitalIn the future technology allowing to mine face to face interactions will be a new frontier in the study of organizations oRationality is at the basis of social actionoSociality is based on the ideas thatActors internalize norms and adhere to obligations and social structures for cooperation andStructures are not only constraints but also resources for selfinterested actions Plenary lecture 13 The Strength of Weak Ties Strong vs weak ties oConsider the setSoThe hypothesis which enables Granovetter to relate dyadic ties to larger structures is the stronger the tie between A and B the larger the proportion of individuals in S to whom they will both be tied that is connected by a weak or strong tieoProposed relationships results first from the tendency of stronger ties to involve larger time commitmentsoIf AB and AC ties exist then the amount of time C spends with B depends in parton the amount A spends with B and C respectivelyTransitivity refers to similarity oThe strength of a tie is a combination of the amount of time emotional intensity the intimacy mutual confiding and the reciprocal services which characterizes the tieoStrong tie relations
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