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Women's Studies
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FEM2104 Class 1 January 8 2013Text course reader at Rytec 404 Dalhousie StreetMidterm and final exam fill in the blank short answer case studies Term project essay photo essay or reflection on CSLClass 2 January 25TA Cathrine Chambers ccham041uottawaca Nasim nkhat031uottawaca Healthcomplex definitiondifferent for everyonebeing healthy is not the same for alldepends on many factorssocial culture economichealth is socially constructedit is a social construct will change with time and placehealth can be objective eg norms in medicinebut we know our own healthcan be subjectivewhat is healthy for one person not necessarily for others eg one person might always have a high blood pressureHealthis a social cultural and political interpretationthe notion of health varies from one culture society and time period to otherseg full body as a sign of health in some cultures and seen as a risk factor in others like North Americaunderstanding of health in a certain society could benefit certain dominant groups whether governments social institutions social classes that are empoweredis subjectiveeach person has their own definition of health functionality happiness mental health absence of diseasescannot be reduced to its biological dimensionit is not simply a biological concept the absence of disease but it is a much broader conceptit has social economic political environmental cultural AND biological determinantsmost famous definition of health is the WHOs definition of healtha state of complete physical mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity missing environmental spiritual factors access to determinants of healthThe term completeis there such thingProblemsIdealistic definitiontoo perfect sets an objective that is difficult to obtain for most individuals It is vaguehow do we evaluate this Based on this definition how do people know if they are healthy or not What is wellbeingExclusion of structural determinants of healtheconomic social cultural and political factors that determine health not under the control of individuals go beyond biological and genetic factors beyond access to health care services It is missing a functionality dimensionPepin capacity to function to use resources to be independentbeing healthy means living in a society free of discrimination with opportunities for work and education no inequities social gender economic having friends and social networksSocial determinants of health social cultural economic and political factors that influence the health of individuals and populations these factors intersect they do not function aloneconditions that we are born live and grow oldin including the health system shaped by power relations in society and money at global local and national levels WHOculture social support income SES education gender family immigration ethnicity sexual orientation SES income education employment proximal DOH mostly related to the individual eg education level income social network that the individual hasstructural DOH related to societal structures eg racism access to HC economy of a country discrimination services offered to minority groupsSocial Critical perspective on healthgoes beyond individual factors and individual health behaviours that would be a reductionist perspective that equates health with access to biomedical services and with the presence or absence of diseasein order to examine the wider social factors that determine health such as SDOHfocuses on the SDOH social ties equality importance of a life free of poverty and discriminationcriticalbecause it is critical of other perspectivessuch as the healthist or healthism perspective implies a hierarchy focus on individual factors and lifestyle factors constructs health as an individual responsibility moral responsibility represents health as an economic product that you buy so health is not accessible to everyone anymore eg story of spending 500 on allergy testing organic foods gym memberships healthy foodsall cost money The individual is responsible for being healthy any illness or health problem is then his fault blame the victimvictim of lack of access discriminationmarginalized individuals have the most health problems social inequality differences based on the SDOHsocial inequity caused by societal factors unjust and unfair avoidable can be changed by initiating action based on SDOHhealth inequity refers to a health outcome unjust and unfairExampleSDOH gender male and femaleSocial inequity generated by SDOH income differences between white women and white men Health inequity greater amount of stress related illnesses in white womenhealth inequity caused by social inequity based on the SDOHSDOH access to housingSocial inequity homeless people do not have access to shelterHealth inequity higher rates of pneumonia amongst the homeless population Health inequity between countries over representation of cholera in South American countries not an issue in North America Social inequity differences in clean water among the countries Eg Exam question example of health inequity of transsexual women and what is the cause of this inequity must be a health outcomesuffer more addictions eating disorders stress depressioncaused by social inequities such as differences in levels of discrimination access to appropriate health care services these are unjust and avoidable Eg health inequity faced by women in India higher maternal death rates during childbirth in comparison to Canadian women due to differences in levels of access to maternal health services and information in India vs Canada SDOH is the access to maternal health services social inequity is the differencestates the difference and comparescontrasts two groups it is unjust must understand how to state the health inequity outcome social inequity difference between groups and SDOH eg gender access to care incomeSocial perspective on genderdifference between gender and sex sexbiology gendersocial construct terms used throughout historygender roles gender rules stereotypesgender roles influence how we behave and view ourselvessexprimary and secondary biological and anatomical characteristics that have been traditionally used to distinguish males from females in a dichotomized way although recent research challenges this dichotomizationprimarygenitalia reproductive organssecondaryhormone levels muscular mass body fat percentage body hair heightsex differences might be greater than intersex differences gender is a social constructionpsychological social and cultural characteristics that have been traditionally used to distinguish men from women in a dichotomized way gender is developed through learning and socialization processes that start at birth a child is socialized to think and behave according to norms established by society family friends community teachers culture religious institutionsJudith Butlergender performativityto perform a gender doing typical behaviours and roles associated with a certain gender she does not believe it is wilfulit is imposed upon us bybecause gender is constructed through societal norms and values she society see readingquestions that certain gendered behaviours are natural she argues that what we associate with femininity and masculinity is a performance she questions the extent to which an individual can constitute him or herself to build your identityshe suggests these behaviours and identities are determined
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