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[ANT101H5] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 90 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT101H5
Professor
Sherry Fukuzawa
Study Guide
Midterm

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UTM
ANT101H5
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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ANT101H5
Lecture 4 Heredity, Evolution & Human Diversity
Key idea: All believe that organisms that exist today exist in the same form as they were created.
However, Lamarck’s idea is different, he is the first one to point out that organisms change from
one generation to the next.
Lamarck’s idea
Any trait that you acquire in your life time, your offspring can inherit (Acquired
inheritance)
Giraffe’s example: long neck
Inheritance of these traits are self motivated
Orthogenesis: organisms are ordered in complexity
Charles Darwin, 1809-1882
Alfred Wallace, 1823-1910 came up with the same idea as Darwin (natural selection)
Selection is the key to evolution
Struggle for existence means that those individuals with favorable variation survive and
reproduce more successfully
Observed that the finches are the same specie, however there is a variation within the
specie
Realizes that if there is variation among species, they over-reproduce more than the
resources available.
If there is variation then certain individuals will have more chances of surviving.
Key concept: if there is variation among population, there is competition. Certain
individuals wills be more successful, and the environment dictates what will be
favourable, whom will survive etc.
The traits that are chosen by the environment are passed on from parent to offspring.
Those with favourable traits will have more reproductive success
Evolution acts on a population, how a population changes over time
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
Father of modern genetic (came up with direct evidence to prove the inheritance of traits)
Provided mechanisms of natural selection through breeding experiments with peas
Determined how one trait passed from one generation to the next
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ANT101H5
Principle of segregation
Each unit pair seperates in gametes production, so that each gamete contain 1 member of
each pair. During fertilization individual units come together
Principle of Independent assortment
Units (genes) that code for different traits assort independently of each during gamete
formation
Mendelian Inheritance
Homozygous: same variants of trait (allele) come together
Heterozygous: different variants of a trais (alleles) come together
Recessive: trait not expressed in heteroyoius state
Dominant: trait expressed in the heterozyous state
Genotype: genetic makeup of an individuals
Phenotype: observable physical appearance
Genes
Unit of heredity – controls trait
Portion of DNA molecule
Contains several base pairs to direct the production of a particular protein.
Alleles
Alternate forms of a single gene
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
DNA(DeoxyriboNucleic Acid)
complex molecule – twisted ladder
Sides made up of 2 strands of
alternating sugars & phosphates,
connected by 4 base pairs (adenine – thymine and guanine – cytosine)
Chromosomes:
Organized structure of DNA
Found in the nucleus of the cell
DNA replication
DNA directs protein synthesis
Proteins are essential for bodily function
Proteins are made up of strands of amino acids (20 different amino acids)
Codon: 3 base sequence within a gene that specifies an amino acid
Protein Synthesis: only two stages
1. Transcription: occurs in nucleus
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