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Study terms for D.Jackson's midterm

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Jennifer Jackson
Study Guide

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Study terms for Antro Midterm
Anthropology – study of Humanity from its evolutionary origins millions
of years ago to its present worldwide distribution and diversity
Linguistic anthropology – nature of language itself and the
relationship between language and culture. The way human think about and use language
to accomplish certain practical and symbolic feats.
Socio-cultural anthropology – study of how people
organize experience, the world, and their social interactions and how they adapt to various
Physical/Biological Anthropology – study human
origins and contemporary biological diversity, particularly between human and primates
(what distinguishes us from animals).
Archaeology – study material culture to reconstruct life of humans
through history (using fossils and rock evidene). Map cultural change though time and
make connections between cutures.
Applied Anthropology – from all 4 subfields and use
knowledge/skills to work outside of academia in order to resolve social issues. (preventing
war, conservation biology, forensic anthropology).
Ethnography – Primary method of understanding cultural variation and
social change. Involves months to decades of observations, interviews, and participation
in peoples everyday lives
Fieldwork - Observations and work done in an actual work environment to gain
real-life experience and knowledge.
Participant Observation - Holistic perspective – seek
understanding of life in different populations by going there, asking questions, trying to
fit in.
Franz Boas & Bronislaw MalinowskiTook
anthropologists out of the lab and into the field to actually see how people organise their
work – to get rid of preconceptions and use questionnaires
Signssomething that stands for something else (3 types: icons, index,
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Iconsoften a picture representing something or a process (fax icon – shows
which way to copy a paper).
Index – indirectly points to what it represents, or wants to show (like smoke
means fire)
Symbolssymbolic in what they represent but are often arbitrarily chosen
(like the H hospital sign).
Signifier and Signified relationship – signifier is
the sign (image, sound, collection of letters), signified is the object/idea it represents (like
picture of tree vs. actual tree). This is how the signs interact with each other and with
Language in “The Circle”has to do with 3 components
the physiology of human speech, the historical roots (similarities between different
language structure), and language as a symbolic system (Saussure)
Ferdinand de Saussureone of the fathers of 20th century
linguistics. Studies language as a system (and its parts). Drew a “circle” around language
as though no other existed in the world.
Synchronic v. Diachronic approaches
Synchronic is looking at something FROZEN in time, while diachronic is looking at
something changing over time.
The physiology and anatomy of speech –
speech has to do with the pharynx (split between air and food passage), larynx (air passes
to produce sound), and the oral cavity (mouth), and the tongue movement controls sounds
Philology/Historical linguisticsfocuses on how
language was born (bable?) and travelled (how it was shared and spread). Work done by
constructing language family trees and historical word lists (realised that the Indo-
European language was the ancestor of modern and western English).
Langue v. Parolelangue is the whole system of language that
precedes and makes speech possible. It is composed of grammar, spelling, syntax,
punctuation, all arranged in relation to each other (only works for robots). Parole is the
concrete use of language - actual utterances. Its the uses of the system, not the actual
system (external manifestation of langue).
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