[ANT102H5] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (51 pages long)

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Ant102 Notes 10/16/2014 10:03:00 PM
The Talking Animal: Language Acquisition
We use language to share common reality with another
Language works with a shared meaning of words
Acquisition
Human language is the most sophisticated
Babies just need exposure to learn it, we are genetically prepared
Any baby can learn any language as long as he is exposed
Babies can hear difference between phonetic contrast (in some
languages, some sounds may sound the same, like v and w, babies
can hear these differences)
They recognize mothers voice first, when in the womb they’re
exposed to mothers voice and language
When babies are born the only sound they make is crying
Babies at three months make cooing sounds, cooing is universal
among babies
Babies begin to babble around 6 months
They also begin to lose ability to hear phonetic contrast, they may
develop accents and can learn the difference between different
speakers
Babbling is different between languages, parents enforce babbling
sounds that sound like words used in their language. For example a
baby saying ma-ma-ma-ma is encouraged because it sounds like
mama (mother) but if he was saying ta-ta-ta-ta it wouldn’t be
encouraged because tata is not an English word but another
language.
Babies use babbling to get parents attention and parents reinforce
certain babblings and ignore others.
By 1 Year a child begins to say his first words and in continues to
grow exponentially
By 5, 5000 words can be mastered by just exposure, not taught
Making of Language: Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics
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Babies and children often make mistakes when learning to speak
Phonology
Phonemes, units of language we consider meaningful
There are common across some languages and different in others
Basic building blocks of language
Phoneme contrasts help us see different meanings in different
words (cat, sat, bat and hat). All have just one phoneme different
but mean completely different things.
Morphology
Morpheme, smallest meaningful unit of language
Example, dog is three phonemes (each letter makes its own sound)
but is one morpheme (dog is the smallest amount to have meaning
Dogs is four phonemes but 2 morphemes because dog has its own
meaning and the “s” at the end is a plural meaning.
Allophone, different sounds but the same meaning. For example,
pronouncing the same word differently, it may sound different but
has the same meaning
Allomorph, different sounds but the same morpheme. For example
churches and cooks both have plural morphemes but different
sounds “iz” vs. “s”.
Holophrase, the child uses one word to express a full thought.
Two Word Grammar, uses two words that are connected for a full
thought
Syntax
The rules of the language, correct way of speaking
Order of words and what makes sense is a result of our culture. For
example Man bites dog in English doesn’t seem logical as Dog bites
man.
Increases our cognitive thinking
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