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Ch- 15 legislature

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Fiona Miller

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Chapter 15 - didn’t do CP 7 Legislature • A multimember representative body which considers public issues and gives assent, in behalf of a political community that extends beyond the executive authority, to binding measures of public policy • What they aren’t o Governing bodies o Do not take major decisions o Don’t initiate proposals for laws • Significance o Helps to mobilize consent for the system of rule  Originated from formation of royal courts in Europe  Monarchs judge and discuss with noblemen (represent varied estates -> had right to be consulted) o Essential defence against executive tyranny  Scrutinize the actions of the executive • Ex/ Congress has more domestic responsibilities and detailed  lists of power awarded than the President  o Symbol of popular representation, through assembly  Hold influential hearings in matters of public concern o Contribute to detailed governance  Improve the quality of legislation • Their original purpose o Assemblies gather + meet o Congress congregate o Deliberate o Legislatures pass laws o Parliaments talk • Structure o Size  The size of the assembly , the number of the members in the lower chamberreflects country’s population  Size doesn’t = strength • To big assemblies difficult to work together • Can easily taken over by political parties or committees o Number of chambers  Unicameral – (One chamber) Advantage Disadvantage Of unicameral Of unicameral - Direct popular election - Doesn’t offer checks and reflects the popular will balances - More accountable - Cannot defend individual economically and decisive and group interests against oppressed members in chamber ex/ minorities - Interests usually unified - The second chamber in a among members bicameral serves as a house of review, revising - Lead to delayed bills bills, scrutinizing constitutional amendments and eliminating legislation - Bicameral can be weak, - Upper chamber provides unicameral is consistent protection against an excess of law-making - Shared work load  conduct detailed committee work + assist in appointing  Bicameral – (Two chambers) Found in larger countries st • 1 = lower chamber aka chamber of deputies, national assembly or house of representatives • 2 = Upper chamber aka Senate Weak Bicameral Strong Bicameral - Government survival - Doesn’t depend on depends on maintaining legislatures confidence assembly’s support b/c Directly voted head of state - Lower tends to dominate - Branches had checks and upper chamber balances - One chamber becomes - Independent no focus accountability on single chamber b/c has two for accountability chamber (no dominance )  Ex/ Parliamentary system  Ex/ Presidential system o Selection of the second chamber  Three methods of selection • Direct election – offered longer tenure Senators • Indirect election- First past the post • Appointment (usually by government) o Ex/ Canada senate appointed by Governor General(on advice by PM) and allowed to stay until 75 yrs old • Functions o Representation – Most members articulate the goals of the party under whose label they were elected  Descriptive representation – is present when the members of a representative body resemble the represented in given characteristics, such as ethnicity and gender  Substantive representation- Is present when representatives act on behalf of, and in the interests of those they represent (riding). • The interests and opinions of her constituents but cannot serve as their descriptive representative • Can be kicked out of party if vote against them and must abide the agenda of their party caucus o Deliberation- Debating matters of moment is the classic
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