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ANT200 Final Review.docx

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Liye Xie
Study Guide

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ANT200 Final Review
Cultural resource management (CRM)
The conservation and selective investigation of prehistoric and historic remains;
specifically, the development of ways and means, including legislation, to
safeguard the past. (ch.1 &10)
The minimal characteristic used as a criterion for grouping artifacts into classes;
includes stylistic, form, and technological attributes (refer to classification) (ch.5)
The ordering of phenomenon into groups (classes) based on the sharing of
attributes. (ch.2 & 5)
A process of reasoning in which similarity b/w two entities in some characteristics
is taken to imply similarity in other characteristics as well; the basis of most
archeological interpretation. (ch.8)
oGeneral (formal) analogy: an analogy used in archeological interpretation
based on broad and generalized comparisons that are documented across many
cultural traditions. (ch.8)
oSpecific (relational) analogy: an analogy used in archeological interpretation
based on specific comparisons that are documented within a single cultural
tradition. (ch.8)
Ethnographic : material/non-material aspects of a living culture
Ethnoarchaeology : initiating ethnographic research for archaeological
purposes (*see slide notes for background info)  ethnographic studies
designed to aid archaeological interpretation. For example,
descriptions of behavioral processes (especially the ways material
enter the archaeological record).
Experimental : duplicating behavioural processes under carefully
controlled conditions
The reason for its existence is basically because ethnography got quickly hijacked
by anthropological researchers who approached their investigations into social
structures, religious and political beliefs, and other such aspects of ancient
cultural life, without due emphasis on the material remains created and discarded
by societies.
oSteps of ethnoarchaeological research:
1) Archaeological Questions
2) Ethnographicanalogy
Ethnographic accounts

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ANT200 Final Review
Direct observation
3) Tested with additional archaeological data
oMaterial remains are the cornerstone of archaeology, so out of necessity came a
group of ethnoarchaeologists whose mission was to understand and answer the
archaeological questions raised when interpreting data ethnographically. That is
when we started seeing ethnographic research initiated by archaeologists who
were specifically interested in the manufacture, utilization, and discard of tools
and other material items in ethnographic societies, so that they can relate them
back to what we see in the archaeological record.
oApplying ethnographic analogy to archaeological research is not as simple as it
looks like. Researchers need to reason the appropriateness of the analogs on:
(for specific analogy)
1. Culturalcontinuity
2. Comparabilityinenvironment
3. Similarity of cultural form
Most importantly, the assumptions generated through analogy need to be tested
with additional archaeological data.
Experimental archaeology:
studies designed to aid archaeological interpretation by attempting to duplicate
behavioral process experimentally under carefully controlled conditions.
Overlapping segments of tree-rings derived from various sources allow
archaeologists to push back the maximum age of dendroclimatological
determinations further and further.
Joint biological and cultural study of human remains and burial sites to investigate
how ppl in a society lived, including their social organization, health, diet,
division of labor, and population structure. (ch.6)
Archeological culture
The max. grouping of all assemblages assumed to represent the sum of human
activities carried out within a single ancient culture. (ch.5)

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ANT200 Final Review
Actualistic studies
Detailed observations of the actual use of materials like those found in the
archeological record (artifacts, ecofacts, and features), used to produce reliable
general analogies for interpretation. (ch.8)
Environmental archeology
Views humans as an integral part of the natural world, interacting with other
species in an ecological system.
Reconstructing Geological Environment (landform)
Ancient coastlines
Coastlines change due to changes in sea-levels. Sea level would drop
as water became locked up in the glaciers; when the ice melted, sea
level would rise again.
Changes in river channelsErosion and deposition by water or wind Glaciated
oReconstructing Biological Environment
Plants are overshadowed by animals in archaeology. WHY?
Because, in general, bones and teeth preserve better than plant parts.
However, there are several lines of important botanical evidence
available for archaeologists:
Macro botanical remains:Seeds, wood, leaves, etc (either charred or in
preservation condition (e.g. waterlogged, desert, etc) • Microfossils:
Pollen, Phytoliths, Diatom, Starch (required good preservation
conditions, too)
Macrobotanical Remains
Charred or carbonized remains are most common type of preservation
Recovered through flotation
May represent cultural use or accidental charring
Preservation bias – plants require contact with fire (i.e. cooking)
Macrobotanical Remains
Charred or carbonized remains are most common type of preservation
Recovered through flotation
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