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[ANT211H5] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 48 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT211H5
Professor
Sherry Fukuzawa
Study Guide
Final

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UTM
ANT211H5
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Toleen Hubaishy Anthro 15.9.16
Lecture 2 – Genetic & Environmental Sex Determination & Why Sex?
NATURAL SELECTION (Darwin’s ideas”
Mechanism that causes evolution
Where animals vary, and where those variations are at least partly inherited, the less
successful varieties will be eliminated, and the more successful will become relatively
numerous
Because individuals vary in their traits, they differ in their reproductive success and
variation in our traits
Depending on the environment in which we live, certain traits would be more advantageous
than others
REPRODUCTIVE ADVANTAGE
A successful organisms trait must be passed on to descendants
Those descendants must reach maturity and reproduce
Idea that success is measured in terms of reproduction
In order to be a successful individual, you must produce sexual offspring, passing on your
genes, and those offspring must then pass on the genes again
SOCIOBIOLOGY
Definition = using the principles of natural selection and reproductive success, to explain all of
human sexual behaviors through biology
Came about in the 1970’s, by Io Wilson
Began with ant colonies, he realized that individuals behave differently in order to reach the
success of reproduction
The study of behavior based on Darwinian paradigm
Basis in population genetics and evolutionary theory
Debate of the fundamentals of sociobiology;
Problem with this is that using biology to explain all human behaviors doesn’t take in
account cultural influence and cultural traditions
In order for sociobiology theory to be valid, it must meet three criteria;
1. The sexual behavior must affect reproduction of that individual
2. It must be a behavior that is seen throughout our species (cannot be something that happens
in certain cultures) must be cross-cultural
3. The sexual behavior must be seen outside of our species (it must originate or be evident
outside of our species)
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Toleen Hubaishy Anthro 15.9.16
Natural selection allows us to answer to “Why” questions of human behavior.
4 EXPLANATIONS TO ANSWER “Why”IN BIOLOGY
Sociology is a way for biology to explain behavior
1. Proximate causation
Concerns the direct mechanisms that bring something about
Structural description
Example: male birds sing in the spring because their estrogen rises thus making their vocals
stronger
2. Ultimate causation
Concerns adaptive/evolutionary significance
Causation on a generational time scale
Example: male birds sing in the spring to attracts females, thus increases their
reproductivity
3. Ontogeny
Development within an individual’s life span
Giving reasons due to the different times in a species life and how they explain certain
behaviors
Example: the male birds sing in the spring because they reach their sexual maturity at that
time
4. Phylogeny
Evolutionary progression by which the behavior has been formed out of the pre-existing
organization
Example: male birds sing in the spring because of their strong connection to do so due to
their ancestors
Darwin’s Theory:
“Survival of the Fittest”
Every time we talk about sociology, we are talking about reproduction (how does a sexual behavior
optimize the reproductive abilities of that individual)
If you did not produce any offspring by the time you died, you are weak and have failed in the eyes of
Darwin
Survival is relevant only in the service of reproduction
Being “FIT” in biology means reproductive success
Genetic fitness = reproduction
GENETIC FITNESS
Reproductive success
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