ANT357H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Bourgeoisie, Enquire, List Of Domesticated Animals

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3 Feb 2013
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Ant207 essay midterm Brainstorming
How did Rousseau, Darwin, and Marx distinguish humans from nature? Compare and contrast how these
three thinkers defined what it is to be human. How did their theories of the human-nature relationship fit
into their larger arguments? Do any of their ideas about the divide between humans and nature still apply
to today’s world?
Marx Reading Estranged Labour 1844
Main point: labor and alienation ( the exploration of labour)
two classes of property owners and propertyless workers.
Workers working in harsh conditions, they don’t have any passion pleasure for the work they are
doing
Alienation is caused by such forcefulness from a higher power
There is no intellectual development that takes place with in alienated labor because the work is so
repetitive
Workers are not allowed to enjoy fruits of their own labour
Animals are able to enjoy their fruits of their labour but these workers are not even able to do that
They are given just enough money to survive
Even animals are able to enjoy and have a good time sometimes
But these alienated workers
Animals create things that they need just for their immediate survival (e.g. shelter, etc). Man is
different because man creates things not just for survival or need but because he desires to (e.g. we
are creative, imaginative, can innovate and create wonderful things). Also we have free will and
consciousness - we desire more than just survival.
Estranged labor diminishes our full potential to create (species being = full human potential). It
reduces our life activity to just survival. We can only create what we are told to create (by our
bosses/by the bourgeoisie) and labor, or productive activity, becomes just a means to stay alive, to
exist, to survive. This type of labor diminishes our creative/imaginative potential.
“The worker sinks to the level of a commodity”
“most wretched commodity of all; that the misery of the worker is in inverse proportion to the power
and volume of his production”
“the doctrine of competition to the doctrine of monopoly, the doctrine of craft freedom to the doctrine
of the guild, and the doctrine of the division of landed property to the doctrine of the great estate; for
competition, craft freedom, and division of landed property were developed and conceived only as
accidental, deliberate, violent consequences of monopoly, of the guilds, and of feudal property, and
not as their necessary, inevitable, and natural consequences”
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“The devaluation of the human world grows in direct proportion to the increase in value of the world
of things.”
The worker is robbed of reality to the point where he is dying of starvation
“The worker is robbed of the objects he needs most not only for life but also for work”
“The worker places his life in the object; but now it no longer belongs to him, but to the object”
“worker becomes a slave of his object; firstly, in that he receives an object of labor, i.e., he receives
work, and, secondly, in that he receives means of subsistence”
(The estrangement of the worker in his object is expressed according to the laws of political economy in
the following way:
the more the worker produces, the less he has to consume;
the more value he creates, the more worthless he becomes;
the more his product is shaped, the more misshapen the worker;
the more civilized his object, the more barbarous the worker;
the more powerful the work, the more powerless the worker;
the more intelligent the work, the duller the worker and themore he becomes a slave of nature.)
“constitutes the alienation of labor is external to the worker -- i.e., does not belong to his essential
being; that he, therefore, does not confirm himself in his work, but denies himself, feels miserable
and not happy, does not develop free mental and physical energy, but mortifies his flesh and ruins
his mind.”
Forced labour and not satisfactory
“External labor, labor in which man alienates himself, is a labor of self-sacrifice, of mortification.”
Loss of self, belonging to another, even animals are not kept and treated so poorly
“The result is that man (the worker) feels that he is acting freely only in his animal functions --
eating, drinking, and procreating, or at most in his dwelling and adornment -- while in his human
functions, he is nothing more than animal.”
“Man is a species-being because he looks upon himself as a universal and therefore free being”.
“Nature is man's inorganic body -- that is to say, nature insofar as it is not the human body. Man
lives from nature -- i.e., nature is his body -- and he must maintain a continuing dialogue with it is he
is not to die.”
“Man makes his life activity itself an object of his will and consciousness. He has conscious life
activity. It is not a determination with which he directly merges. Conscious life activity directly
distinguishes man from animal life activity.”
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