ANT101H5 Final: ANT101 Exam Notes

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Sherry Fukuzawa

Species Species When Where Notes Proconsul 25-15 mya East Africa Ancestors of all Apes Dryopithecus 15-10 mya Europe Ancestors of all African Great Apes Sivapithecus 13-7 mya South Asia Ancestor of all Orangutans Lufengpithecus 10-5 mya South China (orangutan X gorilla) Gigantopithecus 1.8-10,000 ya South East Asia Yeti like (10 ft) Hominins Earliest Hominins 1. Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Chad 7-6 mya  Skull  Unique features not seen on miocene apes 2. Ardepithecus, Aramis, Ethiopia 4.4 mya (reassigned to 5.8-5.2 mya)  Dentition reminiscent of Chimps  Hominin features  Forward foramen magnum  Bipedal? 3. Orrorin tugenesis, 6-mya  East Africa  Post cranial  Bipedal? Australopithecines characteristics o Ape-like from waist up o Longer arms relative to legs o Curved flexible fingers and toes o Still tree climbing o Forward thrust of the face o Large flaring cheek bones-ape like o Human-like from the waist down o Bipedal: S spine; forward foramen magnum; basin shaped pelvis (short, wide, iliac) Gracile form East Africa  A.anamesis o Ape-like jaw and cranium o Thick enamel on dentition o Bipedal  A.afarensis o Example: Lucy  Almost 40% of adult skeleton  Female by pelvis  Stature 3 ½ to 4 ft o The First Family (1975)  At least 13 individuals, including 4 infants o Fossilized footprints  Embossed into an ancient volcanic tuff  Approx 4 – 3.5 mya  Mary leakey (1978)  Laetoli, tanzania  (couple walking by foot side by side) o Specific characteristics  Strong facial prognathism (long snout)  Small cranial capacity (aver 420cc) 310-500 cc South Africa  A.africanus o Example: Taung  Raymond Dart  Estimated to be 3–4 years of age at death (development more similar to apes than humans)  brain 405cc o Specific Characteristics of A. africanus Dentition:  Small incisors and canines  Rounded dental arcade Cranium:  Larger cranial capacity than A. afarensis  more globular cranium Overall, all Gracile forms have: Cranial anatomy: - Generally ape-like Dentition: - Human-like (thick enamel) - Arcade – ape-like Post cranium: - Apelike waist up - Human waist down - Australopithecine has pelvis similar to modern human Robust Form East Africa o Boisei  First Find: OLDUVAI GORGE (1959) by Mary Leakey  Originally called “ZINJANTHROPUS BOISEI” by Louis Leakey 1.75 MYA  Characteristics of A. boisei  Large body size (34 – 49 kg)  Bones thick and robust  Cranial Anatomy/ Brain  Heavy and massive s
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