ANT102 – Exam review
The Riddle – After thousands of years of living as foragers. Why did some societies begin to change their
way of life.
Sedentary – A mode of livelihood characterized by permanent or semi-permanent (villages/towns)
Culture change – the changes in meanings that a people ascribe to experience and changes in their way
Bands – refers to egalitarian units of social organization, found mostly among foragers, that usually
consist of fewer than 100 people.
Slash and burn agriculture – a mode of livelihood in which forests are clear by burning trees and brush,
and cops are planted among the ashes of the clear ground. (Horticulturalists)
Clans – a lineal descent group whose members claim decent from a common ancestor.
State – a form of society characterized by a hierarchical ranking of people and centralized political
Irrigation agriculture – a form of cultivation in which water is used to deliver water to plants.
One possible reason for why foragers chose at some point to settle down and domesticate
plants and animals is that sedentary agriculture was an easier, less dangerous way ( + more
productive) to get food.
People who discovered that they could plant and harvest crops, and domesticate animals
instead of searching for their food began to do so, they had progressed.
Lewis Henry own idea of how human kind had progressed
Studied Iroquois of New York
Human societies evolved through three stages that he identified as savagery, barbarism, and
Change from one society stage to the next reaches some major technological invention (eg.
- Saw technology as driving force of cultural evolution
- As technological advances grew (plough, water wheel), this enabled people to grow more crops
+ domesticate animals
- His perspective: human beings sought harness energy though technology
- Later more forms of energy such as oil and gas were harnessed as means of steam energy
- Cultural development varied directly with the efficiency of tools employed - More efficient technology = more energy transferred to fulfil needs
- Increased efficiency allowed few people to produce enough food for everyone, resulting in mass
scales, thus promoting occupational specialization. This lead to worldwide spread trade and
- Technology remains a popular explanation for why societies transferred themselves.
-Foragers did not struggle with limited technology to obtain food, needed for survival, they did
not have to work hard to make a living.
The transition to agriculture
- The more food the group needs to produce, the more complex the technology needed to
produce it, and more complex technology = greater amount of work
- It takes 10 times more labor to produce harvest with irrigation
Industrial agriculture: producing potato ……..
John H. Brodies compared new ….. and as potato production
Putting out system – A means of production common in 16 century and…, where
manufacturers as merchant supplies the materials ( tools to workers who produce their goods in
their own home)
Factory system – A system of production characterized by the concentration of lavor and
machines in specific places associated with …
Sedentary – a made of livelihood characterized by permanent or semi-permanent settlements.
Progress – the idea that human history is the story of a steady advance from a life dependent on the
whims of nature to a life of control and domination over natural forces.
People who discovered they could plant and harness crops and domesticate animals instead of
reaching for food -> they progressed
Population density – number of people in a given geographic area.
Industrial revolution – a period of European history, generally identified as occurring in the late 18
century, marked by a shift in production from agriculture to industrial goods, urbanization and factory
Factory system – a system of production characterized by the concentration of labour and machines in
specific places. It is associated with the industrial revolution.
Economic development – term used to identify an increase in level of technology and by some standard
of living of a population. World Bank – one of the institutes created at the Breton Woods, World Bank function as a lending
institution to nations.
Biomedical model – also known as western medicine, scientific medicine, or modern medicine, that
combines biology with the diagnosis and treatment of illness and that views the body as a machine,
independent of social context that must be repaired periodically.
Pathogen – An infectious agent such as a bacteria or a virus that can cause disease.
Vector – an organism, such as a mosquito, tick, flea, or snail that can transmit disease to another animal.
Interpersonal theory of disease – A view of disease in which it is assumed that illness is caused by
tensions or conflicts in social relations.
A Chewa who becomes ill consults a diviner to discover the cause of the illness.
Susto: soul detached itself from body.
Factory model – An energy-intensive, ecologically damaging form of agriculture intended to grow or
raise as any crops or live stock as possible in the shortest amount of time.
Nigh uses agro ecological approaches – Agricultural methods that can incorporate indigenous practices
of food production along with contemporary agriculture research to preserve the environment.
Indigenous people of Australia beliefs
Totemism – The use of symbol, generally on animal or plant, as a physical representation for a group,
generally a clan.
Ritual – A dramatic rendering or social portrayal of meanings shared by a specific body of people in a
way that makes them seem correct and proper.
Symbolic actions – The activities includes ritual, myth, art, dance, and music that dramatically depict the
meanings shared by a specific body of people.
Metaohor – a figure of speech in which linguistic expressions are taken from one area of experience and
applied to another. (eg. Fight cold, destroy germs)
Domain of experience – an area of human experiences (eg. Business, war, science, family life.)
World View – an encompassing picture of reality based on shared cultural assumptions about how the
Key metaphors – A term to identify metaphors that dominate the meanings that people in a specific
culture attribute to their experience.
Myth – A story or narrative that portrays the meanings people give to experience.
The Kuskwaka use eating metaphor to give meaning to a wide range of experiences. Hunger is
associated with greed, - single domain of experience (eating), to give their world meaning. The British in India
- India still major producer of cotton
Cotton, Slavery, and the trail of tears
- British sell now Indian cotton to China
- Indian cotton not accepted in Europe + N.A
- Eli Whitney invented cotton … (separate seeds from raw cotton fibre).
- Term to identify an increase in level of technology and by some standard of living. Others view
as an ideology based on 3 key assumptions 1) economic growth and development is the solution
to national as well as global problems 2) global economic ecological and social problems 3)
foreign assistance to underdeveloped countries will make things better.
International monetary fund – To regulate currency transactions among countries. IMF now
makes loans and regulates the economies of lending countries.
Ethnographic present – use of the present tense to describe a culture, although the description
may refer to situations that existed in the past.
Bilateral kinship – a system in which individuals trace their descent through both parents
Nuclear family – family group consisting of father, mother and their biological or adopted
Matrilineal Kinship – a system of descent in which persons are related to their kinship through
the mothers only
Patrilineal Kinship – a system of descent in which persons are related to their kin through their