Ant205-All notes for exam.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Carolan Wood

9/9/2013-Lec 1 Wednesday, September 4, 2013 9:13 AM SEE PAPER NOTES… Unrealistic-they do everything -Investigate scene -conduct autopsy -Interview suspects -Direct investigation -Technology does not exist Forensic science reality-many subfields -bio, chem -anthro, pathology -entomology -ident & policing In Canada we have NO criminalist (in US they do) -most famous criminalist = Henry Lee Team on scene -Coroner/M.E. -Who, how, when, what, where -custody of body Police-responsible for scene General Investigation Section (GIS) -Support Major/Serious Crime - Investigate Identification Officers (Ident) -Photographs, video, fingerprint, trace, biological evidence Forensic anthropologist-depends if fresh body or not Forensic entomologist CRIME LAB SCIENTIST Degree in field of expertise (BSc or BA)-preferably Masters -Biology (hair/DNA) -Chemistry (fibre/substance) -physics/chemistry/anthropology (toolmarks/firearms) Special in-house training Understudy/mentor -cannot work cases alone -regular testing -mock trial -entry level-technician Consulting experts Highest degree in their field -PhD, MD etc regular casework Publishes peer reviewed journals Forensic research Teaches subject Relevant associations -AAFS, CSFS, CAPA, CAA -Sometimes board certified FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGIST Search for Recover Analyze Human remains -skeletonized -badly decomposed Biological profile -age, sex, ancestry Identifying traits Trauma analysis Postmortem damage Forensic Odontologist Bitemark evidence -i.d perpetrator Dentition/dental work -i.d. victim Forensuc Psyvhologists Exmine defendant -mental state -understanding behaviour patterns -serial killers -assist police in training strategies for interviewing suspects Forensic Pathologists autopsy deceased Cause of death Identifying traits -tattoos, scars etc Collect evidencec from body -fingernails scraping -foreign hair Forensic Entomologists Insect evidence  Estimated time since death  Wounds  drugs Other Specialists Special circumstances civilian assistance -POCO Pig Farm Largest serial killer investigation in Canadian history 14 acres site 68 missing women from East Vancouver Scene investigation Feb 2002-Nov 2003 Excavated to sterile -large machinery -trained operators -acurate & safe Contractor Anthro techs to search the dirt Pickton charged w/ 27 counts of homicide Ontario Coroner's system Ministry of community Safety & Correctional Services -Policing Services -Correctional Services -Public safety & Security Public Safety -Fire Marshal Office of the Chief Coroner Centre of Forensic Sciences (CFS) Public Security -Emergency management Office of Chief Coroner-In Ontario, all coroners= qualified doctors -Coroner's Act -deputy, regional and local coroners -qualified doctors -I.d. body -when, where, how, and the means of death -Anatomy act -Med Schools -Organ donation -education and training -Facilitate research -ensure unclaimed bodies (not suitable for medical research) Forensic Anthropology Provinces & Territories -coroner's system -medical examiner Forensic anthropologists work on contract bases -police -search, recovery Coroner/ME -at request of pathologist 1 full-time forensic antro case work Scope of Forensic Anthropology Anthropological technique and knowledge used in a legal context Cultural anthropologists -land claim cases Biological anthropologists -search for, recover, analyze human remains Forensic anthropologist- a biological anthropologist England vs North America England Forensic Anthro= only lab, don't go in the field. Forensic archaeologist = fields work for recovery Distinct academically and professionally Canada and US forensic anthro= they do field, lab and court Problems created by separation of field and lab Artificial Unnecessarily complicates procedures More witnesses at trial Possibility of misinterpretation or info that appears inconsistent Loss of evidence Lack of photographs and other documentation necessary for proper analysis Things US and Canada do -Locating human remains-helicopter, search parties, through computer Recovering remains -exavations -Animal vs human -Forensic significance human remains, maybe historic remains, not forensic -Taphonomy -study of processes affecting the body from deposition' -Time since death -Identification General-sex, age, stature, ancestry Specific-Past trauma, Disease, bone wear patterns, anomalies (non-metric traits) -Manner/Mode of death (Method i.e. shooting) Important moments in the development of Forensic Anthropology 1920s-50s  Anatomical skeletal collections Canada -Grant Collection -University of Toronto US -Hamann-Todd -Terry Known samples t study Increased use of X-rays Beginning of Modern For. Ant. 1939 Krogman  Guide to the identification of skeletal Material WWII Korean Conflict, Vietnam War Pysical anthro i.d. war dead Develop new techniques All collections have sample bias Forensic Antro. Recognized branch of forensic sciences 927 F.A. section of American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) Role chaged -from advisory to authortative Scope increased -airborne -skin contact -ingestion Body, fluids, water/mud, soil. Rodent nest -diseases from body -HIV, hepatitis, TB -Disease from burial environment =HIV, E. coli, Salmonella, hanta virus, TB, hepatitis Chemical Scene-oil products, asbestos, pesticides Lab- mounting medium, etc. HAZMAT (hazardous materials) Physical Sun, poison ivy, animals, excavated units, heavy machinery (sound), nails in boards, debris, etc. Prevention Gloves Gowns/lab coats/tyvek suit Face/eye shields Masks/ respirators Wash hands No eating/drinking/smoking Wipe all surfaces & equipment w/ 10% bleach solution 9/16/2013-Week 2 Monday, September 16, 2013 10:05 AM CRITICAL THINKING & PROBLEM SOLVING -Any discipline -evaluate -methods, theories, published articles, etc. -Also evidence -Particularly in forensic evidence -serious consequences (e.g. perpetrator can go free) -produce chain of evidence strong through to provide a solution (true in life and for this paper) WE USE IT FOR: -evaluating quality, reliability, value of the info (want to be able to detect flaws in argument, in methodology of a paper and conclusions being made) -Evaluate articles, documents, witnesses, website (can we rely on what these sources of info are telling us) -distinguish a good source from bad source -distinguish good argument from poor one -logical basis for decisions -problem solving FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGIST & CRITICAL THINKING -design search strategies -determine best way to recover remains (e.g on a slope, what is the best way?) -w/o any damage or loss of evidence -recovering all evidence, even in time sensitive situations -Use critical thinking for forensic significance ( -also use to evaluate methods of sex, age, ancestry, stature (very important b.c in court must be able t justify why used a certain method etc.) -Also use to confirm of refute identification -To interpret evidence at scene -To analyze a death incident (e.g. was this the primary or secondary crime scene?) -To analyze the burial/deposition incident (how much work did the perpetrator put into concealing these bodies? It tells us about the intent of the perpetrator) -Use it to look at subsequent events e.g scavenging -to evaluate the damage done to bone e.g must differenciate b/w damage done through removal and that of actual trauma -To establish mnner/mode of death **EXAM Q: how to for anthro use critical thinking? Provide ex. From your readings/lecture** ASSIGNMENT: Turnitin copy due before 10am Hard copy due by 10:10 in lecture -unstapled assignments NOT accepted -Download episode soon cause will no longer be available soon (Sept 30) Tittle age, student #, Tutorial # ONLY (no name) Will have an edit before submitting final version: no penalty Intro is 5% Purpose: -statement of purpose 1s line stated correctly, completely, clearly at very beginning of paper ( no flowery intro) Methods: -How are you going to carry out the statement of purpose (thesis) (what methods will you use, what kind of source?) This is called a triangulation of data source: comparing the episode w/ peer- reviewed articles, texts, lecture notes. State your position: relistic or not? Why or why not? Just 2 sentences max. e.g not a realistic portrayal of anthro because Provide a brief synopsis of episode (no longer than 3 sentences long), only as it relates to the purpose of the paper. Content- 10% -All aspects must be linked to purpose-if it doesn't directly relate to the purpose of the paper, it doesn't belong. How is the aspect/sentence help evaluate the episode. Only critique relevant material relevant to For. Anthro. -Quality of answers: am I decisive? I have to take a strong stand. Provide examples and explain them -Don't assume anything! Don't even write I assume… -Critical evaluation= figure it out! -Be specific=avoid vague writing e.g. this at beginning of sentence or these, it etc. like this episode (what episode?) -Be concise=no repetition, get to the point. -Use relevant, varied sources to triangulate data -Make ideas/abstraction concrete- define your terms -How is trait scored? How do you recognize if trait is present or absent? Need explicit instruction on how to do this. Also need to know how age is defined. What is old age? Must define this. -Must operationalize your definitions: need to demonstrate a process, what criteria I used? Think about making a cake and for this need a recipe, the recipe is an operational definition. -repeated by others: adequately defined if someone can repeat the experiment -reliability -validity: does it measure what it set out to measure? How well technique A.B. C measure, is it ppropriate for a certain population Beware of arbitrary definitions ex. Old age is 38-58. Are they trying to fit their results? -Use subheadings for organization i.e. applicable lecture topic (watch the episode, look at what lecture topics the episode covers) -don't stray beyond forensic anthropology -Provide an example(s) for each point -don't make unsupported statements: spell it out -cite everything -Provide a balanced assessment -critique don't trash it, try to find a positive aspect, done right, if any Conclusion-5% -Restate purpose in conclusion- the purpose of this paper was to… -Synthesis of entire paper -should not introduce any new information -reviews the main points of the argument and how it connects to the purpose -Must answer the purpose of the paper -Must use all evidence to explain the pros and cons -must develop and support your position -Minimum of 2 high quality paragraphs Paragraph Structure 1 topic per paragraph -1 idea per sentence, short sentences are good -Topic sentence -1st sentence of each paragraph (tell me what the conclusion is, not at the bottom, then talk about it) -Must be specific and focused -Everything that follows must relate to it -To ensure coherent paragraphs: -Use transitional expressions to define relationships amon ideas in a paragraph -addition=also -example=namely -contrast=but -comparison=similarly -concession=to be sure Result=thus Avoid overusing Citations, grammar/spelling, format- 5% If do not cite something could be a 0% -Use citations given -APA style -No footnotes or end notes -See Anth journal (AJPA) if not sure Include a separate page(s) entitles "references -Cite sources in alphabetical order -don't forget to cite the 'Bones' episode-find online who wrote that particular episode, not the producer, the writer Required paper format -Use page number (not on title page) -1.5 spacing -1 in margins -see instructions on portal- DON'T -Use direct quotes -use big words/flowery language-keep it simple -no first person- like I think etc. only what evidence is telling you -contradict yourself-switch between positive and negative (all good/bad together). It ruins the flow -contractions (don’t, can't etc) -No informal language, no slang or sexist language (don't refer to he do he/she instead, no mankind=humans) BE SURE TO: -Use your space wisely -make every sentence count -Keep verb tense consistent -write mainly in present tense -Delete unnecessary phrases -"as mentioned previously…" -"This is because…" -Incorrect use of 'However" -WRONG at beginning of sentence RIGHT: proplr likr to use "however in sentences. They don not, however, use it correctly Don't begin w/ sentences with: -But, Also, This is because…., Yes, No, And Its vs. it's -Don't rely on computer's grammar & spell check. -1 mark off per pagefor > 2 grammar/spelling mistakes 9/23/2913-Week 3 Monday, September 23, 2013 10:00 AM Crime Scene Investigation In Canada Done by police officers: -First ones to respond to the scene and responsible for the security of the scene -responsible for the crime scene survey-walk around and document what they see -recognition of physical evidence -Collection of physical evidence -Proper packaging & preservation -Examination of physical evidence -crime scene analysis -reconstruction of the crime scene Classification of crime scene by nature of the crime -homicide, robbery Location -indoor/outdoor (very rare that a for. Anth. Would be called for an indoor scene Primary/secondary scene -secondary= every other crime scene after -Primary=First criminal act e.g where kidnaped Knowing the type of scene -Predict involvement of other scenes -Nature of other scenes important too -Know location of other scenes: could have driven somewhere else and good chance body there First responders Police, emergency, medical, firefighter (firefighters always first) -important b/c only ones who view the crime scene in its original condition -do NOT destroy evidence -1st priority-assist victim -2nd priority-search, apprehend suspect -3rd priority-secure &protect crime scene Secure the scene Outside perimeter -to keep out onlookers -caution tape Security officer -no nonessential people -sign in & out people -time & purpose Inner perimeter -borders of crime scene itself -scene ninvestigators Support personnel -between inner & outer perimeter -command post Physical evidence -Anything that can provide useful info -clues -anything that tells us about the crime taken place -info about MO (modus Operenda- how the crime was committed) -links, people, places, things -Anything that can land support to a witness statement -Anything that can identify a suspect -Anything that may prvide a lead in the case -Anything that provides patters & position(position of objects-lso known as context) Conditional/Transitory Evidence Conditional- produced by event or action -transitory- not permanent/temporary, easily lost or changed -Not observed & documented immediately will be lost forever: -position of doors, windows, furniture -lights on or off? -colour of the fames- indicate how hot fire is and how may have been started -presence of odour (gas, perfume, smoke) -position of folds of clothing -placement of bed sheets -towels, cloths, etc. dry or wet? -blood wet, coagulating or dry? -temperature Transfer/Trace evidence -Physical contact between people and things- always bring something in a room or take something with them. -Locard's theory of exchange -Mutual exchange of trace matter b/w any 2 surfaces that come into contct w/ one another -fibers, hairs, etc. Scene Survey & Documentation -examine scene-NO TOUCHING/MOVING -document position of everything -photos (digital & 35mm), video, sketch map. Notes Videos -no sound or no talking -move slowly -all perspective -show processes -date & time -entire scene, then close up of that scene Scene Survey & Plan for Evidence Recovery -devise plan for evidence recovery -in Canada- IDENT officers process scene -Masks, bunny suits (Tyvek), gloves, booties -to prevent contamination b/w officer & scene Evidence Collection -recognition-different if inside vs. outdoors -Marks of forced entry -Scratches at keyholes -Lights working? Bulb unscrewed (outside)? -Content of ashtray-butts good DNA -Toilet seat up or down? If woman lives there only and seat up -Anything in toilet tank? -Stains, splatter- floor, walls, sheets, ceiling Ident officers -Do presumptive tests- if see something then would go to lab -Hemastick -stain is likely blood -Further tests in lab to determine type of blood -Alternate light source -stais, fibres -impression, fingerprints Documents -photos, videos, notes etc. Scene Photos -Bring ajury progressively closer to evidence -Overall -photo w/ context of scene -street sign or landmark if possible Mid-range -object in the scene Close-up -object fills the picture Photos taken with & without -N arrow -scale -label Why? b/c one that just shows everything so doesn't look like hiding anything. Nothing hidden from view. Without= original conditions With= context Evidence Collection -IDEN officer: -preserve -unambiguously labeled-can find easily after -package properly -exhibits/evidence officer: -to keep track of exhibit -Chain of custody Chain of Custody -formal tracking of the exhibit -Who had it, when, why? -To be admissible in court: -chain of custody must be clear -no possibility of contamination or tempering Collecting Evidence -No set order -most fragile first (like hair), most destructive last (body) -Documented & collected 1 at a time -prevent mixing exhibits, improper labels, cross-contamination -Exhibit #- nature of exhibit-What is it? On bag -Who found it? Date, time, location -Who seized it? Date, time, location, initials on seal. -Many type of containers Expert Assistance -Anthropologists, entomologists, etc. -recognizing evidence -documenting for their own records -recovering -Rules for processing the crime scene: -No eating/drinking -No smoking -no contamination Analysis of Evidence -Crime lab scientists or consultants -Identify objects, substance, material -Trace its origin Identification -Comparative process -class characteristics may identify a group of item -physical (size, shape, colour), morphological, chemical, biological properties -Toolmark analysis -shape of mark -Class characteristics -knife, axe, saw, cleaver Individualization -That particular sample is unique (ex. Scissors): which particular pair of scisors made the mark -toolmark -class-weapon -Individualization traits -incidental use/wear -history of weapon -Burrs, chips, striations, rust (to identify the specific weapon that made that pattern) -id specific weapon Crime Scene Reconstruction -Collaboration b/w police investigator, IDENT, expert consultants -Analysis of evidence & statements -Through that can interpret the patterns -Reconstruct events at crime scene -Eliminate potential actions or events -Use observation,physical evidence, logic to generate theories of crime Stage of Crime Scene Reconstruction -Data collection -Conjecture-propose scenarios of what happened -Generate specific hypotheses -Testing: -does evidence fits w/ hypothesis -Formulate a theory Plausible Explanation -Hypothesis have been tested -Evidence explained in terms of theory -Basis of prosecutor's case ****Next lab outside=appropriate clothing and shoes! MEET AT North building doors on other side**** Locating and Recovering Human Remains May 1999-received skeetal remains, x-rays, photos Terminology -Search area- all the terrain to be searched -Burial site- grave itself, along w/ localized disturbance -Grave-pit used for burial -Search indicators- abnormalities used to detect a burial site Involvement of authorities -Accidental discovery (most of the time) -Find through construction -archaeological sites -historical cemeteries -sometimes forensic -Hikers, hunters, kids, people w/ dogs will usually find them -a recent remain -Organized searches -TIP FROM INFORMANT -IN DISAPPEARANCE -FOLLOW-UP ON FOUND REMAINS Objectives of Death Scene Investigation -Documentation of the scene -Preservation of the scene -If remains discovered by untrained people -disturbance -destruction -object is t prevent further loss of evidence -collecting evidence destroys the scene and context (position of items in relation to one another) -Must have plan of action Careful Recovery Techniques -For greater accuracy in evidence collection -It increases probability of collecting all evidence -Recovery of the maximum amount of skeletal remains -Document relationships b/w objects -Prevention of postmortem damage to remains Organizing a Search 1. Preliminary Investigation-done by police, they will bring you what info they have -Gathering information 2. Reconaissance-evaluate the physical location and jurisdiction of what you're looking at: maps, helicopter survey. Need to know how you will get to that site. May have to get legal permission 3. Planning- set up logostics, which resources you have, assemble personnel 4. Search Operation- brief people 5. Mapping & Recovery Gathering Information -People -victim -physical description -clothing -habits -health -Disppearance incident -when, where, who last seen with etc (from police) -Potential witnesses -Defendant/accomplisses Forensic Anthropology -Body dumpsite characteristics -where people "dump" bodies -Perpetrator's concern -not be seen -not be heard Etc, Body Dumpsite Characteristics -Near a parking lot -Downhill from a road -Secluded -Accessible by flashlight -Takes advantage of pre-existing features: well -land owned by or familiar to the suspect -Live close to crime scene Probably start searching at top of hill Consolidate Information with Police -info about crime Anthropologist -body dumpsite -where to search & why -how to search-teamwork important! Good relationship w/ police etc. 10/7/2013-Week 5 10:08 AMOctober 7, 2013 Is it human? Is it significant? Forensic significance Why significant? -Reduces police workload -saves time/effort -Reduces stress of family members w/ missing relatives -Usually human skeletal remains (but instances when it's not the case) -Animal remains -poaching -case from BC Bone? Animal or human? Human skull is a lot thinner than other animals (they do a lot of chewing) Bone is not smooth or too straight Human vs Animal remains -Doug Uberlaker says: -10-15% are animal -Bill Bass (uof Tennessee) says: -25-30% non-human -Dr. Rogers says her cases: -of 70 cases: -Animal=27% Archaeological=13% Historic=5% Human non forensic=9% Human forensic=46% So important for police to reduce case load here by 50% with Dr. Rogers. How do you tell Human vs Animal bone? Textbook recommends: -Know the human skeleton in detail -If you have complete bones -not difficult to determine -Recommendation -faunal archaeology (animal bones) (ANT415) Animal Vs. Human Bone Size -w/i normal adult range consider -shape, angle of joint surface Child vs. Small animal If w/I normal child size rage, consider: -epiphyses (ends) -child=unfused Animal most similar to humans -nonhuman primates and they are most similar in infancy -similarity decreases w/ age -Luckily not common in forensic cases here General Consideration -Animal bone is usually more dense (heavier) -Heavier for the size -Animal bones tend to be well defined surfaces and edges (more angular)'-More angles & ridge in animals -Animals have larger spinal processes Skull -Human -Bulbous forehead -fragments uniformly curved around -Grooves for the meninges (but seen on all other animals too) so not necessarily human -Animal -Fragments flat or sharply curved Ribs -Human -very curved -Animal -often curved mainly only at one end -head of neck of rib tend to be more horizontal even flared at one end for pigs If only small fragment sometimes have to do thin section Bear Paws vs Human Hands -W/o the claws, most similar to human hands -bear carpals (wrist) -larger, more defined than human -bear metacarpals (palm) -ridge down the head and shaft Pelvis -Animal -narrow and long -Human -bowl shaped -broad and short to support weight of upper body Femur -Bear similar in size and morphology (slightly shorter) -more robust -no real neck -Human -delicate -defined neck -rounded head Not all human remains have Forensic Significance Archaeological remains Not significant except if: -vandalism, looting -must determine the nature of remains -forensic anthropologists or archaeologists do this -Sources of evidence used: (ON TEST) -context (close to arch. Site?) -remains (what first nations in that area? Correlate w/ it, is there a stone point in there) -artifacts (pottery, stone tools) Context -Archaeological burial practices: -in Southern Ontario -Bundle burials, ossuaries -Must recognize arch. Burials quickly, w/ minimal disturbance (first nations don't like it) -Treatment of remains -anointing w/ ochre -Culturally significant items -lithics, pottery Cemetery Remains -Not significant when -erosion -displaced during exhumation -Forensically significant -vandalism in cemetery, body snatching, theft Look at context, remains and artifacts Context and Characteristics -Proximity to cemetery -disturbed grave -Embalming practices (doesn't change the steps of decomp, only takes longer) -skin is peeling off -skin hardens -Funeral practices -coffin pressure points (from coffin coming down) -Artifacts (body & cemetery) -eye caps, mouth former, injector needles, cotton packing wax -floral accessories Artifacts -Coffin hardware -handles -hinges -nails -screws -ornamental trim 00-11 Burnaby case -pile of dirt used to make paths -girl finds maxilla -they were using "clean" fill obtained from cemetery So for. Anth. Job to pick up all the dirt from path and put through screener -found some artifacts but no more skeletal remains (only grave goods) Trophy Skulls -Symbolize power over someone -collected by war vet -anu part of the world -Germany -Vietnam, Korea -Donated by descendants (usually once the vet passes on) -Look at ancestry, condition, commemorative mark, alteration Medical Specimens (continued, no forensic significance) -bleached -varnished -usually will see a patina (a shine from being handles a lot) -usually articulated w/ screws and bolts -Sometimes autopsied= skull sawed off Secret Societies -Using during ceremonies -Where obtained? -biological supply stores, medical facilities Processed bones -altered for effect/amusement Commercially Cremated Remains  Sometimes found in unexpected or public location  Uniformly white-grey *burned evenly at high temp for a long time, hard to do if no proper oven)  Crushed, fragments  -crematorium retort 900 degrees Celsius vs campfire 300-500 degrees =not uniformly burned (clandestine cremation) Religious Relics -Religious significance -Imbibes power -Tibetan skull bowls, drums, tambourines -Femur flutes -Need permission to export -or guilty of smuggling The Case of Show and Tell -Hamilton Police Major Crome unit. -Determine forensic significance -ancestry -source Had to look at what there was: -taphonomic changes specific to medical specimen -top of skull cut off -varnished and was peeling off -writing in various places Determined to be older medical specimen with less processing What wasn’t there? -no soil erosion =never been buried -no post-mortem decorations (trophy skull) =not always about what's there, also about what's not there. __________________________________ Short bone -wrist -ankle Long bones Flat bones Irregular bones Buried bones- roots use for food and will will get inside the bone, breaking it up Human femur- round head, tapered shaft (starts thin) Bear metacarpals have a ridge in the middle that humans don't have +++NO BLANKS ON THE REPORT SHEET FOR LAB, OTHERWISE SOMEONE ELSE CAN FILL T IN AND ADD STUFF+++ 10/21/2013-Week 7 Monday, October 21, 2013 10:03 AM Forensic Taphonomy Study of events that occur after a person dies. -it's what happens to the body b/w the time of death & the time of discovery -postmortem (PM) changes to bones Why study taphonomy? -Because the position, colour, weathering, erosion is consistent w/ -where and how the body was found -Can be used to corroborate a tip from informant or testimony -what was done to the body -To determine if the body has been mved by animals, humans, gravity or water -To determine the postmortem interval (elapsed time since death) -Also to know if evidence has been added to, altered in some way, or lost -to differentiate between peri trauma (around the time of death-poor term) vs. post mortem damage (not trauma, which happens when alive) -For forensic significance (last week's class) Ex. Phone (picture) -Informant claims tried to burn the body -the phone was fire damaged-witness is credible=evidence given is consistent w/ the tip Ex. Same informant says suspect tried to destroy the body by also trying to smash it once it was burned a bot. Used a stick to stir the body part Evidence=bones were broken and fragmentary=consistenet w/informant's tip Ex. Back skull picture with fracture on occipital bone Defense lawyer says defendant didn't kill the victim, just moved the body in a pickup truck on gravel road. Q: Are these 2 things consistent? Is the trauma cause by the dragging? A: no erosion on the back of the skull (road rash), no embedded gravel or pitting, or grated look etc. Taphonomic changes NOT consistent with defendant's claim. Traditional Archaeological Taphonomy Looks at -Disarticulation sequences -loss of tissue This is affected by: -Animal scavenving -Environmental transportation: water and gravity -weathering/discoloration: exposure to the elements at or near the earth surface (may result in discoloration or exfoliation of bones)  Also looks at survivability of skeletal elements Disarticulation Sequence From the least stable join to the most stable joint The sequence is affected by: -joint amount, type, of tissue and joint -the blass and socket (hip) more stable -hinge (knee) less stable -where there are ligaments stay together longer -Based on normal decomposition -bacterial & enzyme action There is a typical sequence w/ a lot of overap Typical Sequence (they overlap) 1-skull & atlas separate from vertebrae 2-Ribs loosen, chest collapse 3-limbs disarticulate 4-The jaw disarticulates form the skull 5-overlapping these stages: -vertebral column disarticulates -weathering begins before vertebrae separate Many things can mess up the sequence Variation in sequence -insects speed up the removal of tissues. If wound, they go there otherwise they enter normal orifice -Sedimentation and burials will -fix the position of the body -slow decay -When there's water: -first sink to bottom, then gas fill up and float. -May have dragging on knuckles and feet -Animal scavenging -Human intervention-perpetrators like to come back and visit the body or move it somewhere else The most frequent taphonomic process: Scavenging & scatter -Animal activity -gnawing, digging, clawing -Carnivores are going to: -puncture -channeling-they take the bone and put in back teeth and chew= groove) -Marrow coning-chews epiphyses and suck the marrow out -hew condyles, hands, epiphyses -Scalloped edges (like the edge of a scallop) When carnivores find body they usually take a piece and run away and chew that then come back for more. So usually find a lot of scatter. Rodents activity -gnaw on sharp edges (to file down teeth) -orbits, broken edges -Parallel chisel-like marks -it camouflages wounds -they like to make nests in bodies in people skulls etc. Other scavengers -Sheep & Deer -crunch shaft -Pigs -crush bones -Porcupines -may carry up trees -birds -peck holes -Bears -crush long bones -may drag the whole bones -longitudinal cracks -few fragments -axial skeleton consumed How can we tell Bones have Benn Moved? -bones are scratched, polished, broken -look at degree of articulation and anatomical position -Will take inventory in t
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