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Final

Study tables of textbook for Final


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO152H5
Professor
Fiona Rawle
Study Guide
Final

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BIO152 FALL 2010
Harman Sawhney
BIO152 Midterm Study Guide
Harman Sawhney
This is just a sample of the study tables you should have in your notes. You will likely have more than
these in your study notes.
(Review from highschool below. Note, you do not need to have the functional groups memorized, but
you should understand their role in biology…ie. The type of molecule they are found in)
Figure 2.3 on page 41 in textbook (Chapter 2)
FUNCTIONAL
GROUP
FORMULAPROPERTIES OF
FUNCTIONAL
GROUP
(eg. acts as a base)
TYPE OF MOLECULE
THIS GROUP IS
FOUND IN
Amino The amino part acts like
a base tends to
attract a proton to
form NH3
Amines
Amino acids
Carbonyl (Ketone /
Aldehyde)
Aldehydes especially
react with
compounds of
form HR2 to
produce larger
molecules to form
alcohols.
Aldehydes
Ketones
CarboxylActs as an acid tends
to lose a proton to
form an ester.
Carboxylic acids
Hydroxyl Highly polar so makes
compounds more
soluble through
hydrogen bonding
with water; may
also act as a weak
acid and drop a
proton
Alcohols
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BIO152 FALL 2010
Harman Sawhney
Methyl
CH3
Non polarOrganic compounds
Phosphate
PO43-
When several
phosphate groups
are linked
together, breaking
O-P bonds
releases large
amounts of energy
Organic Phosphates
Sulfate
SO42-
Acidic behavior with
water
Acids?
Sulfhydryl When present in
proteins they
can form disulfide
bonds (S-S) that
contribute to
protein structure
Thiols (cysteine)
amino acids
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BIO152 FALL 2010
Harman Sawhney
Figure 3.3 on page 49 (Chapter 3)
Nonpolar amino acidsPolar (uncharged) amino
acids
Polar (charged) amino acids
General structure:
No charged or electronegative
atoms to form hydrogen
bonds. So not soluble in
water (mostly just
hydrocarbon chains)
General structure:
Polar charges can form
hydrogen bonds so
soluble in water. (mostly
OH, SH, NH bonds)
General structure:
Charged side chains form
hydrogen bonds highly
soluble in water (could be
either acidic negative
charge, or basic positive
charge).
List of aa:
Glycine, Alanine, Valine,
Leucine, Isoleucine,
methionine, Phenylalanine,
Tryptophan, Proline
List of aa:
Serine, Threonine, Cysteine,
Tyrosine, Asparagine,
Glutamine
List of aa:
Acidic: Aspartate, Glutamate
Basic: Lysine, Arginine,
Histidine
Complete the blanks in the following table to review the structures and functions of organic molecules
TYPE OF MOLECULE SPECIFIC EXAMPLE
(GIVE A NAME)
FUNCTION IN LIVING
ORGANISMS
LipidsCholesterolImportant component of
plasma membranes, and
starting pt. of synthesis
of hormones
(testosterone).
Monosaccharide Glucose, galactose, pentose,
sucrose, fructose
Polymerize to form
polysaccharides
(polymers with glycosidic
linkages)
Polysaccharide Starch, glycogen, chitinRanging from energy storage
to formation of tough
structural fibers
Phospholipid ?(membrane phospholipids) Important components of
plasma membrane (dont
dissolve in water)
Disaccharide? CelluloseStructural component of plant
cell walls
Amino acidsGlycine To make proteins
(polypeptides)
Nucleic acidDNA, RNAStoring genetic information
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