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BIO152H5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Haemophilia, Calcification, Disruptive Selection

Course Code
Fiona Rawle
Study Guide

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1. Evolution and the themes of Evolution
1. Global challenges that require a biological solution:
Potential global challenges:
acidification of water (Calcification)
Human activities such as burning of fossil fuels is threatening water quality
Burning fossil fuels leads to CO2 emission, which is absorbed by the
atmosphere and rains down; oceans become more acidic due to increase in
CO2 levels
Results in a loss of biological diversity
2. Organism’s environmental adaption result from evolution:
Wings of the sea gull, aerodynamically efficient in shape and strong but light
weight in internal structure
Finches of Galapagos: different beak structures for different functions
Form indicates function
3. different levels of hierarchy in biology:
domain: Achaea, bacteria, eukarya
kingdom: Animilia, Plantae, Fungi, Protists
4. Food competition hypothesis in context of Giraffe’s long necks was not
supported by the data because:
Giraffe’s usually feed on lower grounds and not necessarily on tall trees
5. Sexual competition in context if Giraffes long neck hypothesis
“evolved long necks because longer necked males win more fights than
shorter neck giraffes and can father more offspring”
6. Identify predictions based on a hypothesis
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2-5 Water, Carbon, Macromolecules 16:55
7. Describe how living organisms are subject to basic laws of physics and
chemistry, give examples:
Physics: gravity affects all organisms on earth
All organisms require energy to do work, for example walk, jump, eat, etc.
Chemistry: macromolecules are composed of chemical compounds
Water: life depends on unique properties of water
Carbon: backbone of life, all organic compounds need carbon
Important elements in body: oxygen 65%, carbon 18.5%, hydrogen 9.5%,
Nitrogen 3.3%
Many other elements crucial for survical, Ca, Fe, etc.
8. Compare and contrast covalent, ionic and H bonds in water
Covalent Ionic Hydrogen Bonds
Sharing a pair of
valence electrons by 2
Transfer of electrons
from atom to atom
Attraction between
polar covalent bonds
Single covalent bond:
sharing one pair of
valence electrons
Both atoms have
charges after transfer of
Electronegative partners
are usually oxygen or
Not always = depending
on electronegativities of
atoms involved in bond
Charged atom also
called ion
O & N because they
have high
Can form between
atoms of same element
or different
Cation: positive ion Van Der Waals:
distribution of electrons
Bonding capacity is
called atom’s valence
Anion: negative ion Result in “hot spots” of
–ve or +ve charges
Nonpolar Covalent:
atoms share electrons
Ionic bond is an
attraction between an
anion and a cation
Attractions between
molecules that are close
together as a result of
these charges
Polar covalent: unequal
sharing of electrons,
results in partial +ve or
-ve charge
Weak chemical bonds Collectively can be
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2-5 Water, Carbon, Macromolecules 16:55
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