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BIO152H5 Study Guide - Lysosome, Organelle, Chloroplast


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO152H5
Professor
Fiona Rawle

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Inside the Cell
25. Describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic Cell
-contains an extensive amount of membrane-enclosed
organelles
-nucleus is usually the largest, contains chromosomes
-much larger
-diverse and dynamic cytoskeleton
-multicellular
Example: Animals and Plants
-does not contain membrane-enclosed organelles
-much smaller and simpler
-unicellular
-Example: Bacteria and Archaea
26. Explain why eukaryotic cells are usually larger than prokaryotic cells.
eukaryotic cell contains a nucleus (very large), while prokaryotic cells do not
they have specialized organelles, making it more complex and larger in size
specialized organelles: lysosomes, E.R., mitochondria, golgi apparatus, etc.
27. Explain the endosymbiont theory.
a theory based on how a large host cell and an ingested organism (oxygen and photosynthetic organisms)
could become independent of each other for survival
host cell absorbs oxygen, then over generations becomes a mitochondrion
absorbs photosynthetic prokaryotes, then over generations becomes a chloroplast
proposed ancestors: oxygen and photosynthetic organism
28. Describe how the endosymbiont theory would be different if a photosynthetic organism was engulfed first.
if a photosynthetic organism was engulfed first, then over many generations, becomes a chloroplast
if engulfed first, most organisms would have chloroplasts and only some would have mitochondria
(opposite of cells today)
29. Compare and contrast animal cells with plant cells.
Animal Cells Plant Cells
Both Have: cytoplasm, E.R., ribosomes,
mitochondria, golgi apparatus, microtubules, nucleus
Different:
-plasma membrane: cell membrane
-shape is more round
Both Have: cytoplasm, E.R., ribosomes, mitochondria,
golgi apparatus, microtubules, nucleus
Different:
-plasma membrane: cell wall, & cell membrane
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-one or more small vacuoles
-lysosomes occur in cytoplasm
-contains cilia
-shape is more rectangular
-a large central vacuole
-contains chloroplasts to make their own food
-contains plastids
30. Describe the structure and function of cellular organelles, and expand on the connection between
structure and function in this context.
Cellular
Organelle
Structure Function Diagram
Nucleus -Double membrane
Components:
-chromosomes:
organized
units of DNA,
composed of a single
DNA in each
-nucleolus: rRNA
synthesis
- nuclear Iamina:
maintains shape of
nucleus, which is
composed of protein
-contains most of the
DNA (eukaryotic cell)
-assembly of ribosome
subunits
-structural support
Ribosomes -made up of ribosomal
RNA and protein
-uses the info from the
DNA to make proteins
(protein synthesis)
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