Study Guides (380,000)
CA (150,000)
UTM (5,000)
Biology (600)
BIO153H5 (100)
Midterm

BIO153H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Peptidoglycan, Amoeba Proteus, Malaria


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO153H5
Professor
ritcher
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 5 pages of the document.
1
Shahnoor
Lab 2: Prokaryotes and Protists
Required Taxonomy:
Domain Eubacteria
Phylum Cyanobacteria Anabaena
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

2
Shahnoor
Domain Eukarya
“Protista” Volvox
Diatoms
Euglena
Amoeba
Paramecium
Trypanosoma
Plasmodium
Physarum
Prokaryotes, are microscopic, single-celled organism, differ from eukaryotes in that they do not
have a membrane-bound nucleus. Instead of having chromosomal DNA, their genetic material
is arranged in a circular loop called a plasmid, and they reproduce asexually through a simple
cell-splitting process called binary fission. Two Domains among Prokaryotes; Archaea and
Eubacteria.
Archaea live in extremely anaerobic environments and have been called extremophiles.
Different archaeans have been classified as thermophiles (live in environments with
temperatures of 60–100°C or more!), halophiles (live in extremely salty conditions), acidophiles
(live in acidic environments), and methanogens (methane producers).
Eubacteria (commonly called bacteria) are the most abundant forms of life. They occur in soil,
water, in our food, and in our bodies. They perform many important ecological roles. They
serve as decomposers, agents of fermentation, nutrient recyclers, and aid in our digestion.
One way bacteria are classified is by their shape. For example, rod-shaped cells are termed
-bacilli (sing. -bacillus); spherical cells are termed -cocci (sing. -coccus); spiral-shaped cells
are termed -spirilli (sing. -spirillum) Diplo- means that the bacterial cells occur in pairs;
strepto- means they form chains; staphylo- means the cells form bunches (like grapes). Used
together, a spherical bacterium that occurs in pairs would be called Diplococci.
All eubacteria are classified by Gram staining, involves staining a culture of bacteria with four
liquids: crystal violet, iodine, safranin, and an alcohol wash.
The bacteria that retain the purple colour of the crystal violet stain are Gram-positive. Those
that take on the pink colour from the safranin are Gram-negative.
Cyanobacteria are often (although erroneously) referred to as the blue-green algae.
Cyanobacteria are not true algae, their actually photoautographs, they use solar energy to
make food for themselves.
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version