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BIO203H5 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Photosynthesis, Xylem, Transpiration


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO203H5
Professor
Steven Chatfield
Study Guide
Final

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BIO203H5

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1. Introduction & Plant Tissue Systems
Plants Are Not Boring
Primary production
Oxygen
Secondary metabolism
o Chemical welfare
o Bio-products (eg. Pharmaceuticals)
Crops & agriculture
o Human civilization
Careers
Vascular Plants: Diversity from Common Building Blocks
Modular, reiterative development
o Repeating segments of development
o Indeterminate- most stems and roots
o Determinate- flowers, most dicot leaves
Organ systems
o Shoot
o Root system
o Flowers?
Organs
o Lateral roots, stems, leaves
Systems (root and shoot)
Organs
Tissues
Specialized cells
Anatomy, chemical composition, etc.
o Microscopy, physical characteristics (shape, position, staining)
Gene expression and identity
Vascular Plants: Simple Tissues
Parenchyma
o Thin primary cell wall (unlignified) nucleus, cytoplasm, one+ vacuoles
o Often intracellular spaces, shape varies; Aerenchyma
o Primary wall= pink with Toludine Blue O
o Photosynthesis, storage, pith, local transport
o
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Collenchyma
o Differentiates from parenchyma- alive at maturity
o Thick primary cell wall (not lignified)
o Primary wall= pink-purple with Toludine Blue O
o Support & protection
o
Sclerenchyma
o Fibers & sclerieds (dead at maturity)
o Thick primary & secondary walls (lignified)
o Cell wall= blue/blue green with Toludine Blue O (Lignin)
o Support, protection from microorganisms
o
Vascular Plants: Complex Tissues
Xylem & phloem differ from procambium/provascular tissues
Xylem- transport & transpiration stream
o Water & minerals
o Long-distance signaling molecules
o Contain multiple cell types & composition changes with maturity
Xylem parenchyma, protoxylem, metaxylem; tracheids & vessels
Unlignified + alive but lignified + dead at maturity
Different secondary cell wall thickens (reflect maturity + function)
Tyloses (parenchyma) & fibers
Phloem- transport & pressure system
o Fixed carbon (mostly sugars)
o Long-distance signaling molecules
o Contains
Angiosperms= sieve elements, parenchyma, fiber cells
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