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Ch. 36 Book Review Guide. Extremely Detailed

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Angela B Lange

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Ch. 36
Plant Form and Function
-indeterminate growth: continues to grow throughout its life, until death.
-in response to favorable conditions, a plant send roots and shoots in the most promising
directions, seeking out more and more light and the simple compounds it requires.
36.1 Plant form: Themes with many variations
-For photosynthesis to occur, plants need large amounts of light and carbon dioxide and a small
amount of water as an electron source. Plants also need large amounts of water to fill their cells
and maintain them at normal volume and pressure
-To sunthesize nucleic acids, enzymes, phosopholipids, and other macromolecules needed to
build and run cells, plants must obtain nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesiums, and
some other nutrients
-To acquire these resources for photosynthesis, plants use two basic systems, a Root System
and a Shoot System
-The root system below ground anchors the plant and takes in nutrients and water from
the soil
- The shoot system: harvests light and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to produce
-These systems grow throughout the life of the individual, allowing the plant to increased
in size, overtop competitors, and forage for the resources it needs.
-in most plants the root and shoot systems are connected by vascular tissue. Water is
transported from the roots to the shoots through vascular tissue. Sugars and other nutrients are
transported in both directions.
-Herbaceous plant: or herb, meaning a seed plant that lacks wood and has a relatively short
lived stem

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The Root System
-a vertical section called a Taproot
-numerous lateral roots that run more horizontally
-functions to anchor the plant in the soil, absorb water and ions from the soil, conduct water and
selected ions to the shoot, and store material produced in the shoot for later use.
Morphological Diversity
-Although above ground portions of prairie plants are burned during fires and die back during
the winter or dry season, their roots are perennial thus their root system sends up a new shoot
system after a fire or each spring.
-Perennial root systems: living for many years
-Natural selection has favored a diverse array of root systems among species that grow in the
same habitat, to minimize competition for water and nutrients.
-Diversity of root systems observed in prairie plants has two important consequences:
(1) an array of prairie plants can coexist in the same area with less competition for soil
and resources
(2) most individuals can survive water stress during drought years
-Each type of root system is specialized for acquiring resources from a different region of the
Phenotypic Plasticity
-Phenotypic plasticity: roots are changeable depending on environmental conditions (genetically
identical individuals will have diff. looking root systems in different environments)
-Roots actively grow into areas of soil where resources are abundant; roots do not grow or die
back in areas where resources are used up or lacking
Modified Roots
-Adventitious root: a root that develops from the shoot system instead of the root system. Ex.
Prop roots

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-Pneumatophores: specialized lateral roots that function in gas exchange.
Shoot system
-consists of one more stems, which are vertical aboveground structures.
- each stem, consists of nodes, where leaves are attached, and internodes, or segments
between nodes.
- a leaf is an appendage that projects from a stem laterally that function as photosynthetic
organs. The nodes where they attach are also the site of axillary buds
-If conditions are appropriate the axillary bud may develop into a branch- a lateral
extension of the shoot system.
-at the tip of each stem and branch is apical bud, where growth occurs that extends the length of
the stem or branch.
-If conditions are appropriate apical or axillary buds may develop into flowers or other
reproductive structures.
Summary of shoot system: A repeating series of nodes, internodes, leaves, and apical and
axillary buds. As plants grow, the number of nodes, internodes, and leaves increases. After an
initial period of growth, however, an internode does not increase much in size over time. Thus
the shoot system of a plant grows by adding more parts rather than by increasing the size of
each part.
Morphological diversity
-Variation in the size and shape of the shoot system is important: it allows plants of different
species to harvest light at different locations and thus minimize competition. It also allows them
to thrive in a wide array of habitats
-Rosettes: species that grow in a compact form
-ex. Of variation: Silverwoods in Hawaii
- can be found from sea level to mountaintops and from rainforests to desert like
conditions of exposed lava flows
- diverse in size, shape, and growth habit,
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