[BIO205H5] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (13 pages long)

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Published on 5 Oct 2016
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BIO205H5
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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BIO 205 – Lecture 2 – Evolution
Evolution is based on genetic variation which is achieved via
oMutation – a change in the nucleotides of a gene (it is evident by the product of the gene
which may produce a different type of protein)
oGenetic Drift – the change of alleles due to chance (random processes) such as random
mating
It is associated with small populations, thus a change in more obvious
Tends to be a change that occurs overtime
oBottleneck Effect – associated with the death of a majority of a population, the small
population thus has a reduction in genetic variation
oFounder Effect – when a small group of a larger population moves away; the small
group has a smaller genetic diversity than the larger group
oThe two populations become distinctively different
oDue to the small amount of genetic variation, as the group develops on its own,
carriers of diseases that may have been rare to large groups, become more
prevalent
There are three types of selection, in which evolution works through
oDisruptive selection – is the selection of both extreme characteristics
Circumstances make it favourable for the offspring to have beaks of either
extreme as opposed to the intermediate
oDirectional selection – is the selection of either one of the extreme characteristics
There is a trait that the parents have but the phenotypes of the offspring shift (in
the example of Darwin finches, due to environmental issues, most of the
offspring ended up having larger beaks than their parents and over the years the
beaks grew bigger until, the environmental made it more favourable for birds
with smaller beaks)
oStabilizing selection – is the selection of intermediate characteristics as opposed to the
extremes
An adaptation is a trait or characteristic that is developed in order to survive an environment
o“an inherited characteristic that is beneficial to the organism and enhances its survival
and reproduction in a specific environment” – Lecture definition
oIn the example of the kermde bear, as they fish for salmon, the salmon cannot see the
white bears as well as those that are black, thus the white fur is an adaptation and a
mutation.
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Document Summary

Evolution is based on genetic variation which is achieved via. It is associated with small populations, thus a change in more obvious. There are three types of selection, in which evolution works through: disruptive selection is the selection of both extreme characteristics. Circumstances make it favourable for the offspring to have beaks of either extreme as opposed to the intermediate: directional selection is the selection of either one of the extreme characteristics. Bio 205 lecture 5 life history factors. Ex 1 the bigger the seed, the fewer the number or the inverse, the smaller the seed the higher the amount (negative correlation) The more offspring there is competition within the nest for limited resources. The parents want all the offspring to leave the nest and survive but using the least amount of energy which would be used for the next breeding season.

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