[BIO206H5] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 80 pages long Study Guide!

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29 Nov 2016
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BIO206H5
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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0Office: 3036 Davis. Building
Telephone: 905-828-5380
Email: george.espie@utoronto.ca
Office Hours: Monday and Wednesday 12:30 – 2pm
Typical Prokaryotic Cell: Escherichia coli
-self replicating: it has a doubling time of about 20 minutes
-doubling time = 20 minutes
-N=272
-4.7 x 1021
Cell Biology
-The science that aims to answer the question: “What is life, and how does it work?”
The Power of a Cell – Development
-our cells allow for diversity; we have differential gene expressions (this is how we differ from
E-coli)
Molecular Biology is…
• The branch of biology that studies the structure, activity &function of macromolecules essential
to life & and its propagation; define a function and see how it integrates into a cell to see how
that cell performs its life activities
• Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the
various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of DNA,RNA, protein synthesis and
protein trafficking and learning how these interactions are regulated. The field overlaps with
other areas of biology and chemistry, particularly genetics and biochemistry. (Wikipedia)
• Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
• Protein
• the study of the underpinnings of the processes of DNA replication, transcription and
translation of the genetic material through the use of recombinant DNA technology.
• How do cells make or renew themselves and how do they pass on the information for self-
creation to the next generation?; genetic continuity
Evolution: origin & genesis of cells and molecules; modern theory tells us all cells arise from
existing cells (what did the original cell work and how did it evolve into complex organisms)
Biochemistry: concerned with mechanisms of the reaction of biologically important molecules
• The central dogma of molecular biology; proteins and the RNAs of the cell does the day to day
processes important for daily functions; replication, transcription and translation; unifying
concept (found in every living cell)
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-genetic continuity is the ability of a cell to replicate with great accuracy (accuracy is amazing
because of a proofreading function which is with the use of DNA polymerase)
Characteristics of Life
• Growth
• Metabolism
• Reproduction
• Response to stimuli (external environment)
• Movement
• Large scale manifestations of molecular interactions over time
• physiology & ecology
Cells
• The simplest biological unit that displays all the characteristic of life is the cell
ALL LIVING THINGS ARE MADE UP OF CELLS
• simplest organisms are solitary cells
• more complex organisms are communities of specialized cells
The Cell Theory
• The cell is the smallest unit of life; once cell is broken down, life ceases
• All living things are made up of cells
• New cells arise only from pre-existing cells; the origin of life is really difficult
the cell & molecular biology + the principles of evolution= framework for development of the
modern science of biology
What is a cell?
• The fundamental unit of life
• Empirical, biochemical definition!
A lipid-membrane-bound unit filled with a concentrated aqueous solution containing
- proteins - variety of organic compounds
- nucleic acids - inorganic ions
- carbohydrates - organelles (not all cells)
- lipids - WATER
• Collectively display the 5 characteristics of life
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