[BIO206H5] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 18 pages long Study Guide!

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7 Feb 2017
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BIO206H5
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 2
Slide 2
we all contain same foundational set of molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, lipids, sugars)
same compliment of macro and micro molecules
DNA contains info and discrete segments contains discrete portions of information. These
segments are transcribed (copied) which serves as a template for protein synthesis
info coded in DNA is information to make a protein, containing linear sequence of amino acids
This central dogma relates all living organisms on earth
DNA does’t just ode for protei, ut also various types of RNA oleules
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)= end product -transferral RNA (tRNA) = end product
Slide 3
processes are segregated in eukaryotic cells
small amount of DNA in mitochondria and chloroplast (animal and plant respectively)
Synthesis of RNA occurs in nucleus
messenger RNA translates through nucleus, nucleopores, cytoplasm
Translation occurs in cytoplasm
Ribosomes are essential for translation
if you find ribosomes, likely where protein synthesis occurs
surface of ER, in mitochondria, and chloroplasts
amount of DNA = genomic information
Slide 4
genome confined to the nucleus
in other regions = euchromatin (lighter spots on the diagram)
DNA is always wrapped up & interacting with proteins (called histones)
Histone + DNA = chromatin
different states of chromatin in the nucleus (can be very dense or lighter)
some genes on DNA are not being transcribed, the ones that are being transcribed are more
tightly bundled with histones
Cell must make proteins, need ribosomes, and these rRNA are being transcribed in nucleolus
Slide 5
amount of DNA found in cell differs in order of magnitude
the more genes, the more complicated organism (general trend)
can see regions where this is not true (e.g. amoeba -- single-celled organism has massive
genome)
humans: 10^9 genomes
shrimp: have more DNA than humans
DNA must be empirically measured
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Slide 6
the minimal genome discovered is about 500 proteins
hua geoe odes for aout 30 000, so rise i DNA does’t eessarily orrespod to rise of
number of proteins in genomes
Slide 8
nucleotides form these structures
nucleotides also involved in Energy, signaling, and coenzymes
Slide 11
adenine linked with ribose via covalent glycolic bond
Slide 14
Nucleoside: lack phosphate group, but we use nucleoside name when naming nucleotide
Slide 15
ribose sugar would just be AMP
phosphate groups given specific designation (alpha, beta, gamma)
all three of these are examples or nucleotide (base, sugar, phosphate group(s))
nucleotides include number of 5' phosphate groups (mono, di, tri)
Slide 16
diff between U and T, T can be called "methyluracil" -- extra methyl group
pyrimidine ring = N1 is where nitrogen forms covalent bond with pentose sugar
covalently bonds to that pyrimidine ring
purine ring = N9 is where sugar covalently bonds to that purine ring
Slide 18
deoxy = removal of O
Slide 19-20
linked together by bond called end
glyosidic bond (attaches N9 to C1')
Slide 21
1909-1929: 1:1:1 ratio between nitro base, phosphate, deoxyribose = in DNA each nucleotide,
only had 1 (monophosphate) group
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Document Summary

We all contain same foundational set of molecules (dna, rna, protein, lipids, sugars) Dna contains info and discrete segments contains discrete portions of information. These same compliment of macro and micro molecules segments are transcribed (copied) which serves as a template for protein synthesis info coded in dna is information to make a protein, containing linear sequence of amino acids. This central dogma relates all living organisms on earth. Dna does(cid:374)"t just (cid:272)ode for protei(cid:374), (cid:271)ut also various types of rna (cid:373)ole(cid:272)ules ribosomal rna (rrna)= end product -transferral rna (trna) = end product. Slide 3 small amount of dna in mitochondria and chloroplast (animal and plant respectively) Messenger rna translates through nucleus, nucleopores, cytoplasm. Amount of dna = genomic information if you find ribosomes, likely where protein synthesis occurs surface of er, in mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Slide 4 in other regions = euchromatin (lighter spots on the diagram) Dna is always wrapped up & interacting with proteins (called histones)

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