BIO210Y5 Study Guide - Final Guide: Bronchus, Lung, Breathing

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11 Feb 2016
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Respiratory System - Chapter 21
Pulmonary Ventilation
Airow to and from the lungs
Conducting portion and respiratory portion of respiratory tract
Conducting: begins at nasal cavity, extends through pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
Respiratory: includes smallest bronchioles and alveoli
Where does gas exchange between air and the lungs occur?
Alveoli
Respiratory defense system
Series of ltration mechanisms that prevent airway contamination by
debris and pathogens
What membrane lines the conducting portion of the respiratory tract?
Respiratory mucosa
Why can cystic &brosis become lethal?
Produces dense mucus that restricts respiratory passageways and
accumulates in the lungs.
Harmful bacterial infection may also develop, leading to death
List structures of the upper respiratory system
Nose
Nasal cavity
Paranasal sinuses
Pharynx
Trace the pathway of air through the upper respiratory system
External nares  nasal vestibule (guarded by hairs that screen out large particles)
nasal cavity  superior, middle, inferior meatuses (air bounces o0 conchal surfaces)
 internal nares (the connections between the nasal cavity and nasopharynx)
nasopharynx  oropharynx  laryngopharynyx
Why is the vascularisation of the nasal cavity important?
The rich vascularisation of the nasal cavity by the expandable veins in the
lamina propria
Radiates body heat
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Air is warmed before it leaves nasal cavity
Heat evaporates moisture from the epithelium to humidify
incoming air
Identify the paired and unpaired cartilages that compose the larynx
Paired:
Arytenoids cartilages
Corniculate cartilages
Cuneiform cartilages
Unpaired:
Thyroid cartilage
Cricoids cartilage
epiglottis
What are the highly elastic vocal folds of the glottis also called?
Vocal cords
Distinguish between phonation and articulation
Phonation: production of sound and one component of speech
Articulation: modi&cation of sound by the tongue, teeth, and lips for clear speech
Compare the two primary bronchi
Right primary bronchus
Larger
Descends toward the lung at steeper angle
What function do the C-shaped tracheal cartilages allow?
Allow room for the esophagus to expand when food or liquids are swallowed
Trace the pathway of airow along the passages of the lower respiratory
tract
Trachea  primary bronchi  secondary bronchi  tertiary bronchi  terminal
bronchioles  pulmonary lobule
Bronchopulmonary segment
Speci&c region of a lung supplied by a tertiary bronchus
Location of the lungs within the thoracic cavity
Left and right lungs are surrounded by left and right pleural cavities
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