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Midterm

BIO310H5 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Sympathetic Ganglion, Peripheral Nervous System, Somatic Nervous System


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO310H5
Professor
Nagham Abdalahad
Study Guide
Midterm

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Multiple Choice
1) In general, the nervous system does each of the following, except
a. Direct very specific responses
b. Direct long-term responses to change
c. Help to maintain homeostasis
d. Respond rapidly to change
e. Interpret sensory information
2) Which of the following is not a characteristic of the endocrine system?
a. Produces a more rapid response than the nervous system
b. Produces an effect that involves several organs or tissues at the same time
c. Releases chemical messengers called hormones
d. Important homeostatic system
e. Produces effects that last for days or longer
3) An example of a receptor in a negative feedback loop controlling body temperature would be
a. Regulatory centers that send commands to an effector
b. Effectors that cause blood vessels to dilate
c. Sweat glands that increase secretion
d. Temperature sensors on the skin that detect a stimulus
e. Sweat glands that act like effectors
4) If a response increases a disturbance, the control system is classified as a _________ feedback
a. Polarized
b. Deficit
c. Positive
d. Negative
e. Neutral
5) Integral membrane proteins that connect electrical synapses are called
a. Receptors
b. Synapsins
c. Sodium channels
d. Desmosomes
e. Connexons
6) Graded potentials
a. Produce an effect that spreads actively across the membrane surface
b. May be either a depolarization or a hyperpolarization
c. Produce an effect that increases with distance from the point of stimulation
d. Are often all-or-none
e. Cause repolarization
7) The all-or-none principle states that
a. Only sensory stimuli can activate action potentials
b. All stimuli will produce identical action potentials
c. All stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials
d. The greater the magnitude of the stimuli, the greater the magnitude of the action potential
e. Only motor stimuli can activate action potentials
8) The same _________ can have different effects depending on the properties of the _______
a. Propagation; neurotransmitter
b. Receptor; neurotransmitter
c. Substrate; receptor
d. Hormone; neurotransmitter

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e. Neurotransmitter; receptor
9) Which type of synapse is most common in the nervous system?
a. Radiative
b. Mechanical
c. Processing
d. Electrical
e. Chemical
10) The following are the steps involved in transmission at a cholinergic synapse
1. Chemically-gated sodium channels on the postsynaptic membrane are activated
2. Calcium ions enter the synaptic terminal
3. Acetylcholinesterase hydrolyzes acetylcholine
4. An action potential depolarizes the synaptic terminal at the presynaptic membrane
5. The synaptic terminal reabsorbs choline
6. Acetylcholine is released from storage vesicles by exocytosis
7. Acetylcholine binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane
8. Calcium ions are removed from the cytoplasm of the synaptic terminal
The correct sequence for these events is
a. 2,4,6,7,1,8,3,5
b. 6,4,2,7,1,8,3,5
c. 4,2,6,7,1,8,3,5
d. 4,2,6,7,8,5,3,1
e. 2,5,4,6,7,1,8,3
11) The effect that a neurotransmitter has on the postsynaptic membrane depends on
a. The quantity of neurotransmitters released
b. The frequency of neurotransmitters release
c. The nature of the neurotransmitter
d. The characteristics of the receptors
e. All of the above are correct
12) The statement “there is always a peripheral synapse between the CNS and the effector organ” is
a. True only for the parasympathetic nervous system
b. Not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems
c. True for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems
d. True only for the somatic nervous system
e. True only for the sympathetic nervous system
13) Craniosacral division is another name for the
a. Parasympathetic division of the ANS
b. Somatic nervous system
c. Afferent nervous system
d. Sympathetic division of the ANS
14) Postganglionic sympathetic axons can release the neurotransmitters ______ at their effector junctions
a. Nitric oxide
b. Acetylcholine
c. Norepinephrine
d. Ach
e. All of the above are correct
15) Post-ganglionic neurons in the adrenal gland
a. Release acetylcholine into blood capillaries
b. Release epinephrine and norepinephrine into blood capillaries
c. Are modified and can’t release neurotransmitters
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d. Release norepinephrine into blood capillaries
e. Are located in the adrenal cortex
16) Which of the following statements concerning the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is
false?
a. Preganglionic neurons are located in the brain stem and sacral region of the spinal cord
b. The actions of the parasympathetic division are more localized than those of the sympathetic division
c. Preganglionic fibers are relatively short and postganglionic fibers are relatively long
d. Post-ganglionic neurons are located in ganglia within or near to effectors
e. The post-ganglionic neurons always release acetylcholine
17) Nicotinic receptors
a. Respond to norepinephrine
b. Are found at neuroeffector junctions of the sympathetic nervous system
c. Are found at neuroeffector junctions of the parasympathetic nervous system
d. Open chemically-gated sodium ion channels
e. Respond to epinephrine
18) Hormones known as “catecholamines” are
a. Lipids
b. Steroids
c. Derivatives of reproductive glands
d. Peptides
e. Derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine
19) An activated G protein can trigger
a. A fall in cAMP levels
b. The production of diacylglycerol
c. The opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane
d. The release of calcium ions from intracellular stores
e. All of the answers are correct
20) Cell membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones?
a. Thyroid hormones
b. Catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids
c. Peptide hormones
d. Catecholamines
e. Eicosanoids
21) Hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors?
a. Blood level of an ion-like calcium
b. Nervous stimuli
c. Blood level of glucose
d. Blood level of a hormone
e. All of the above are correct
22) If the median eminence of the hypothalamus is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control
the secretion of which of the following hormones?
a. ACTH
b. TSH, ACTH, PRL
c. ADH and OXT
d. PRL
e. TSH
23) Alpha cells are to _______ as beta cells are to ________.
a. Glucagon; somatostatin
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