BIO325H5 Study Guide - Winter 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Vortex, Muscle, Mucus

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Published on 29 Mar 2019
School
UTM
Department
Biology
Course
BIO325H5
Professor
BIO325H5
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Lecture 1: Imagine As It Isnt
January 7, 2019
Important Concepts
D’Arcy Thompson
Trabeculae
Dynamic optimization
BIO325 is about the form of organisms
Form of a body speaks to its evolutionary history
As an adaptation:
o Evolved because it enhanced fitness
o Was subject to selection for survival & reproduction
Body parts also achieve their form within the limits and ‘laws’ of Newtonian mechanics
Ennos defines “Biomechanics” as how the adaptations of animals & plants are constrained to
their mechanical environment
o The study of forces, stresses in solids, pressures in fluids, acting, via elasticity, viscosity,
etc. to achieve movement
o Structures also allow you to infer their capacities to transduce force
“Analysis of biological form must emphasize the concept of adaptation- the fitness of a structure to
perform functions beneficial to an organism” (Stephen Jay Gould 1971)
Function in physiology is how a structure- organ, tissue, cell, or molecule- works to the benefit of
an organism
The gut functions in digestion, a lophophore functions in respiration, a leg functions in jumping
Know How to Place Animals (& Plants) in Their Largest Groupings
Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Common Names ** important to know which phylum **
Learn diagnostic structural features of major phyla (especially Chordata, Arthropoda)
Plant groups- Vascular Plants: angiosperms (flowering) & gymnosperms (conifers)
Understanding of the concepts of natural & sexual selection
Increase vocabulary of morphological descriptive terms
o Sagittal & transverse; Dorsal & ventral
o Distal & proximal; Promote & remote
o Flex & extend; Anterior & posterior
Draw structures as a means of learning
Three Main Lines of Living Arthropods
Chelicerates (spiders)
Crustaceans (crabs)
Terrestrial mandibulates (insects & myriapods)
o Commonly encountered myriapod is Scutigera coleopteran aka house centipede
Grasshopper’s common name is Marsh meadow grasshopper (Order Orthoptera, Phylum Arthropoda)
Hind legs are disproportionately large, with a (blackened) dicondylic femorotibial joint
Within femur, muscle fibres are attached pinnately to a tendon (apodeme)
Row of pegs on the inner face of each hind femur & two pairs of wings
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Lecture 1: Imagine As It Isnt
January 7, 2019
Theme: aim is to change the way organisms are regarded
Get into the habit of questioning the form of the body parts of organisms & to search structures for
possible adaptiveness, as the products of a history of selection evolved within physical constraints
House centipedes emphasize running, while grasshoppers emphasize climbing
Grasshoppers jump & climb between the substrates that may present different angles to gravity
o Makes a two-tyne mobile (ungue) grappling hook really useful
Jumping millipedes are unheard of, but they need to run down their prey (other smaller arthropods)
o Almost vestigial tarsal claws
Bodies & Body Parts Behave
Samaras move in the wind, pollen grains move on a bee
Organisms move by growth
o Sunflower turns to track the sun, one side of the stem growing faster than the other
o Strangler fig vine climbs on a tree
One part of an organism may move relative to another, as an atrium squeezes blood into a ventricle
or segments of a limb extend in a jump
An animal may pick up & move from one spot to another
o Crawling, burrowing, jumping, running, jetting, swimming, flying
Behaviour involves movement or its purposeful absence eg. holdfasts, playing possum
To understand a form, its shape, size, colour, strength, smoothness, opacity, stiffness, resilience
o You are greatly helped by knowing its behaviour
Scutigera coleopteran
15 pairs of tapered-tip walking legs, differing in length along the body- get longer rearward
Arthropodia end in a multijointed segment & animal moves with a side
Cursorial adaptation- legs moving in waves metachronally
Adaptations build on a foundation of other adaptations & a form may serve multiple functions
These ‘little’ machines never stop running (ie. evolution is always working on a living organism)
Adaptations arise from parts that were selected for historically in other contexts
- Here are leg segments from a millipede & a
grasshopper
- They contact the substrate very differently
- Tarsal parts of the millipede are many & relatively
tiny, tapering away to a vestigial claw (ungue)
- The grasshopper end in a robust two-clawed
grappling hook
- Comparison between taxa is important to generate
insight
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